Metal-OxideSemiconductor Fields Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) From Prof. J. Hopwood Structure: n-channel MOSFET (NMOS) body B source S gate G IG=0 drain D ID=IS IS
metal oxide n+ p L n+ W Circuit Symbol (NMOS) D G ID= IS B IG= 0 IS S
(IB=0, should be reverse biased) VGS = 0 n+pn+ structure ID = 0 body B source S gate G - + drain D VD>Vs metal oxide n+ p
L n+ W 0 < VGS < Vt n+-depletion-n+ structure ID = 0 body B source S gate G - + drain D VD>Vs +++ metal
oxide n+ p L n+ W VGS > Vt n+-n-n+ structure ID > 0 body B source S n+ gate G - +
+++ +++ +++ metal oxide ----p L drain D VD>Vs n+ W Summary Vt is the threshold voltage If VGS < Vt, then there is insufficient positive charge on the gate to invert the p-type region This is called cut-off
If VGS> Vt, then there is sufficient charge on the gate to attract electrons and invert the p-type region, creating an n-channel between the source and drain The MOSFET is now on 2 modes of operation: triode and saturation Triode Region A voltage-controlled resistor @small VDS B S D - + +++ +++ metal - oxide - - - n+ B
S p VGS1>Vt n+ increasing VGS D -+ +++ +++ +++ metal - -oxide - - -- n+ ID
p VGS2>VGS1 G n+ cut-off B S n+ D -+ +++ +++ +++ +++ metal - - -oxide -----p VGS3>VGS2
n+ VDS 0.1 v Increasing VGS puts more charge in the channel, allowing more drain current to flow Saturation Region occurs at large VDS As the drain voltage increases, the difference in voltage between the drain and the gate becomes smaller. At some point, the difference is too small to maintain the channel near the drain pinch-off body B source S gate G - +
drain D VD>>Vs +++ +++ +++ metal oxide n+ p n+ Saturation Region occurs at large VDS The saturation region is when the MOSFET experiences pinch-off. Pinch-off occurs when VG - VD is less than Vt. body B
source S gate G - + drain D VD>>Vs +++ +++ +++ metal oxide n+ p n+ Saturation Region
occurs at large VDS VG - VD < Vt VGS - VDS < Vt VDS > VGS - Vt body B source S gate G - + drain D VD>>Vs +++ +++ +++ metal oxide
n+ p n+ Saturation Region once pinch-off occurs, there is no further increase in drain current ID saturation triode increasing VGS VDS>VGS-Vt VDS
iD = iS = 0 Triode: vGS>Vt and vDS < vGS-Vt iD = kn(W/L)[(vGS-Vt)vDS - 1/2vDS2] Saturation: vGS>Vt and vDS > vGS-Vt iD = 1/2kn(W/L)(vGS-Vt)2 where kn= (electron mobility)x(gate capacitance) = n(ox/tox) electron velocity = nE and Vt depends on the doping concentration and gate material used Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) The gate oxide is very thin tox < 10 nm (10x10-9 m) It is very easy for static electricity to destroy this very thin insulating layer Must practice precautions, such as wrist straps and static free work areas Parasitic Capacitance Notice that the entire gate structure looks exactly like a capacitor (metal-insulator-semiconductor) This parasitic capacitance at the gate allows current to flow at high frequencies! iG > 0 as frequency increases and, just like other semiconductor devices, the parasitic
capacitance limits the speed of the device (turning the MOSFET on requires charging the gate capacitance). The RsigCgate time constant tells us the signal delay for digital circuits and the upper cut-off frequency for analog circuits. Conclusion For the remainder of the class, we will look at the behavior of semiconductor devices in much more detail Occasionally, you might get caught-up in the details! Please refer back to this overview to see how it all fits together.
Describing Transformations Flow Chart. Describe fully the single transformation that maps shape P onto shape Q. (3 marks) Enlargement. ... We describe rotations with an angle, a direction and a centre. Direction - There are two directions when we rotate;...
I would rather have the photograph not just exactly as the scene was, but as the artist would have liked it to be, or imagined it might be. A loss of faith in science also meant that pictorial photographers sought...
www.MrSheasPage.weebly.com Photoshop Basics By the end of class WEDNESDAY 2 or 3 photograms attempted At least 1 scanned to your P:drive By the end of class FRIDAY Hand in your best photogram Hand in a print out of your best...
Peristalsis 4. Two types of digestion AND how they work 5. Moving through the digestive system: Write the function and definition of the following main organs in the digestive system. ... Assignment In your compositing book, using the diagram given...
Key themes for FY 2014 budget and five-year plan. Enhancing World-Class Safety. FRA's budget continues to enhance rail safety, already among the safest modes of transportation, building on last year's record.
In breaking free, the Contemporary artist also breaks free from the idea that the present is destined to be better than the past - which is our myth of the Davey lamp, a myth which excludes questions of true value....