Meta-analyses, Guideline Development & Implementation

Meta-analyses, Guideline Development & Implementation

Latest Evidence on Nutrition in the ICU: Will it Change Existing Guidelines? Rupinder Dhaliwal, RD Clinical Evaluation Research Unit Critical Care Nutrition Kingston ON, Canada 1 Outline of Session New RCTs in select area of critical care nutrition (adult) Fish oils Parenteral glutamine

Antioxidants Probiotics Updated analyses of Canadian Guidelines Impact on evidentiary basis 1 Conflict of interest Co-author of Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines 1 JPEN 2003 1980-2003

n > 200 RCTs 34 topics 17 recommendations 2005 2007 2009 update update update

Development of Guidelines evidence + integration of values Validity Homogeneity Safety Feasibility Cost practice guidelines 1

Inclusion Criteria Updated to 2012 Randomized controlled trials Critically ill patients (not elective surgery) Clinical Outcomes EMBASE, Medline, Cinhal, reference lists New RCTs per Topic (n = 66) Topic # RCTs 2009 # new RCTs 2012

Early vs. delayed 14 2 Target dose EN 2 2 Fish Oils/Borage Oils

5 4 Protein/peptides 4 1 Fibre 6

1 Small Bowel vs. Feeding 11 5 Protocols/GRVs 3 2

Probiotics 12 7 Supplemental PN 5 5 PN Type of lipids

5 4 PN Glutamine 17 11 Antioxidants 16

6 PN Selenium 11 5 New Topics (n=8) and RCTs New Topic # new RCTs

Trophic vs. Full feeds 2 Hypocaloric EN 1 Fish Oils only 1 PN + EN Glutamine

1 Threshold of GRVs 1 Discarding GRVs 1 Early Supplemental PN vs Late 1

Vitamin D 1 Enteral Fish Oils* *Product enhanced with fish oils +borage oils + antioxidants 1 Enteral Fish Oils* *Product enhanced with fish oils +borage oils + antioxidants

2009 Recommendation Based on 5 studies, we recommend the use of enteral formula with fish oils, borage oils, and antioxidants in patients with ALI/ARDS New RCTs = 3 Rice 2011 Grau-Carmona 2011 Thiella 2011 + Pontes Arruda 2011 + Stapleton 2011 (fish oil only) Multicenter, RCT, 14 ICUs in Brazil

N = 200, early stages of sepsis (no organ failures; within 36 hrs from onset of sepsis). Fish oil/borage oil/antioxidant vs. standard polymeric X 7 days Outcomes: Evolution to more severe forms of sepsis (severe sepsis or septic shock 28 day all-cause mortality, organ failure development, hyper/hypoglycemic events, insulin use, hospital stay, ICU stay Pontes-Arruda Crit Care 2011;15:R144 Outcomes Variable Study

(n=53) Use of mechanical ventilation, n (%) Control (n=53) Development of sepsis 5.7% 13.3% Development of septic shock

20.7 % 37.7% Invasive 10 (18.9%) 18 (34%) P Value 0.022 .039

5 (9.4%) 6 (11.3%) NS PREVENTION VS. TREATMENT Number of days using 7 (4-12) 15 (9-21) .0033 < 50 % patients

ventilated mechanical ventilation Exclude from Number of ICU days 7 (4-12)CPGs 13 (9-18) <.0001 Non-invasive Number of hospital days No difference in survival between the groups 9 (6-14)

19 (13-24) <.0001 Pontes-Arruda Crit Care 2011;15:R144 11 Spanish ICUs 89 patients with diagnosis of Sepsis on admission Randomized to: Fish Oil/Borage Oil formula OR Standard polymeric formula Outcomes: new organ dysfunction Grau-Carmona Clin Nutr 2011

Clinical Outcomes Fish Oils: Trend towards lower SOFA scores (NS) Grau-Carmona Clin Nutr 2011 NIH NHLBI Timing of Feeding S U P

P L E M E N T Early Full N-3 + GLA + Antioxidants (Module delivered as bolus bid)

Control Standard EN (480 cal/ 20 g pro) Fast ramp up Early Trophic (10 ml/hr) n = 250 n = 250

n = 250 n = 250 ..Because of different study design, difficult to combine with other studies of continuous administration in moderately well fed patients.. Cook, Heyland JAMA Oct 2011 OMEGA: 60-Day Mortality P=0.05 P=0.14

bolus not formula select patients include but analyze without Rice et al JAMA Oct 2011 89 patients from 5 centres in US Mechanically ventilated patients with Acute lung injury (ALI) Randomized to (separate from EN): BOLUS fish oils 7.5 mls q 6 hrs, 9.75g EPA & 6.75 gm DHA/day OR placebo i.e. normal saline X 14 days EN or PN as per MDs discretion

Stapleton CCM 2011 Clinical Outcomes Fish Oils ONLY Bolus Separate from EN X aggregate with RCTs of fish oil, borage oil Stapleton CCM 2011 Fish Oils: Effect on mortality (n = 6) INTERSEPT, Stapleton data not included

No effect , statistical heterogeneity! 2009: RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51, 0.97, p = 0.003 Fish oils: effect on mortality removing bolus RCT (n =5) 1 EN fish oils: with new RCTs Effect on mortality disappears when bolus study is included statistical heterogeneity present Effect on mortality is significant when bolus study excluded

2012 Recommendation Fish Oils/borage oil: Downgrade recommendation to should be considered Fish Oils alone: insufficient data Arginine 2009 Recommendation Based on 22 studies, we recommend arginine and other select nutrients not be used for critically ill patients New RCTs = 0 1

Elective surgery patients many RCTs significant reduction in infections p <0.0001 significant shorter HLOS p <0.0001 Drover et al Am Coll Surg 2011 Glutamine supplementation? 1 EN Glutamine 2009 Recommendation

Based on 2 level 1 and 7 level 2 studies, enteral glutamine should be considered in burn and trauma patients. There are insufficient data to support the routine use of enteral glutamine in other critically ill patients New RCTs = 0 No changes in recommendation PN Glutamine 2009 Recommendation Based on 17 studies, when parenteral nutrition is prescribed to critically ill patients, parenteral supplementation with glutamine, where available,

is strongly recommended. There are insufficient data to generate recommendations for intravenous glutamine in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition New RCTs = 11 Ozgultekin 2008 Eroglu 2009 Perez Barcena 2010 Grau 2011 Andrews 2011 Wernerman 2011 Cekman 2011 Zeigler 2012 (in press)

+ 3 Chinese RCTs + Heyland 2012 REDOXS (EN + PN) 10 centres in Scotland 502 Patients expected to be in ICU for at least 48h and required PN meet at least half their requirements (only 50% received PN) Randomized 2.6 days after admission to ICU

Trial PN isocaloric and isonitrogenous, given for up to 7 days unless died or stopped PN Glutamine 20g/d ( too small of a dose?) Selenium 500g/dg/d Both Neither Median duration of study PN was 4-5 days Andrews BMJ 2011:342 The SIGNET Trial RESULTS Effect of Glutamine Mortality

No significant differences Confirmed infections within 14 days No significant differences Multicenter trial in Spain 127 patients with APACHE II score >12 and requiring PN for 59 days Standard PN vs. Supplemented with 0.5 g/kg/d of AlaGln dipeptide Enrolled patients received only 5-6 days of PN Grau CCM 2011; 39 P=0.10

P=0.03 Grau CCM 2011; 39 413 Patients given nutrition by EN and/or PN route Within 72 hrs of ICU admission Supplemented as IV L-Ala-Glutamine, 0.283 g/kg/day administered separate from PN vs. placebo (saline) Primary endpoint SOFA; infections not recorded No effect on SOFA Wernerman Acta Anesthesiology PN glutamine group: lower mortality

PP p = 0.046 ITT p = 0.098 Wernerman Acta Anesthesiology 2011 Ahmet Eroglu Critical Care 2010 Anesthesia Anal 2009 GLND Ziegler et al (in press) n =150 surgical ICU patients needing PN after cardiac,

vascular, colonic surgery no differences in mortality trend towards increase in infections TheREDOXS Study REducing Deaths dueto OXidativeStress The REDOXS Study REducing Deaths from OXidative Stress Glutamine given via Dr. Daren Heyland et al

PN plus EN Patients least 2 failures N = 1223 patients with 2at or more organ Randomized toOrgan high GLNfailure EN + PN vs. placebo within 24 hrs admission to ICU Factorial design: Antioxidants vs. placebo

X aggregate with other studies PN GLN: mortality revised (n = 24) 2009 RR 0.71 [0.55, 0.52] p = 0.008 2012 weaker now a trend PN GLN: infections revised (n = 12)

2009 RR 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) p = 0.008 2012 still significant weaker PN GLN with new RCTs less effect on mortality, now only a trend less effect on infections, still significant 2012 Recommendation: PN Glutamine

Downgrade to recommend or should be considered CAUTION: do not use high dose PN in patients with acute MOF PN + EN Glutamine (REDOXS) Strongly recommend that high dose IV GLN + EN NOT be used in patients with MOF 1 Antioxidant supplementation Parenteral Selenium 1 Supplemental Antioxidant Nutrients 2009 Recommendation:

Based on 16 studies, the use of supplemental vitamins and trace elements should be considered Parenteral Selenium 2009 Recommendation: There are insufficient data to make a recommendation regarding IV/PN selenium supplementation, alone or in combination with other antioxidants, in critically ill patients AOX/PN Se new RCTs New RCTs = 5

El Attar 2009 Montoya 2009 Andrews 2011 Manzanares 2011 Valenta 2011 + REDOXS Study 2012 Manzanares Critical Care 2012 AOX combined: mortality, n =22

2009 0.76 RR [0.64, 0.91] p = 0.002 2012 still significant weaker signal AOX combined: infections, n=11 2009 RR 0.94 [0.75, 1.17] p = 0.56

2012 stronger signal Antioxidants/PN Se with new RCTs AOX combined weaker significant effect on reduction on mortality stronger reduction in infections stronger signal for both in sicker patients PN selenium still trend towards reduction in mortality stronger reduction in infections 2012 Recommendation (TO BE FINALIZED):

AOX: no change ? PN Se: no change ? Probiotics 1 Probiotics 2009 Recommendation There are insufficient data to make a recommendation on the use of Prebiotics/Probiotics/Synbiotics in critically ill patients New RCTs = 7

1 Knight 2009 Barraud 2010 Morrow 2010 Frohmader 2010 Ferrie 2011 Sharma 2011 Tan 2011 Petrof et al Critical Care 2012

Critical Care Medicine 2012 Probiotics with new RCTs stronger signal for reduction in infections (2009: no reduction) higher quality studies do NOT show a reduction in infections significant reduction in VAP still trend towards reduction in ICU mortality 2012 Recommendation: Upgrade to should be considered 1

Summary Many recent RCTs in area of critical care nutrition Careful review of the articles is recommended Recommendations for following will probably not change Arginine EN glutamine Recommendations for the following will probably be downgraded EN Fish Oils/borage oils PN Glutamine PN + EN Glutamine (NEW TOPIC) Recommendations for following will probably be upgraded

Probiotics Recommendations for following are pending Combined AOX PN Selenium Updated recommendations will have an impact on practices in ICU

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