Mendel's Law of Inheritance

Mendel's Law of Inheritance

Mendels Law of Inheritance Genotypes, Phenotypes & Punnett Square Edited by: Jessica Hawley Compiled by: Hailey Haberman Objectives: Explain Gregor Mendels laws of inheritance

Discuss the difference between genotypes and phenotypes Label the three types of genotypes Draw and label a Punnett square Predict outcomes of a Punnett square Mendel Modern genetics had its beginnings in an

abbey garden, where a monk named Gregor Mendel documented a particulate mechanism of inheritance. He discovered the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments. His approach to science had been influenced

at the University of Vienna by one of his Mendels work In order to study inheritance, Mendel chose to use peas, probably as they are available in many varieties. The use of plants also allowed strict control

over the mating. He chose to study only characters that varied in an either-or rather than a moreor-less manner. Genetic crosses To cross two different pea plants, Mendel

used an artists brush. He transferred pollen from a true breeding white flower to the carpel of a true breeding purple flower. Tracking Characteristics

Mendel tracked heritable characters for 3 generations. When F hybrids were 1 allowed to self-pollinate a

3:1 ratio of the 2 varieties occurred in the F2 generation. Mendels terminology True breeding: When the plants self- pollinate, all their offspring are of the same variety.

Hybridization: Mating, or crossing, of two varieties. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two parents that breed true for different versions of a single trait.

Mendels terminology P generation: True breeding parents. F generation: (first filial) Hybrid offspring of 1 the P generation. F generation: (second filial) Offspring from

2 the self-fertilisation of the F1 hybrids. What is Genetics? All body cells contain Blueprints with instructions as to how an animal will look or act etc.

One Gene comes from each parent (pairs) Genes are divided into sections (Chromosomes) that carry genes Sex chromosomes: Male = XY, = XX Female

Genotypes The genotype refers to the entire set of genes in a cell, an organism, or an individual. A gene for a particular character or trait may exist in two forms; one is dominant (E) and the other is recessive (e).

Dominant and Recessive Genes Dominant Genes One gene overshadows the other. Recessive Gene The gene that is overshadowed by a

dominant gene. Examples of Genotypes There are three basic genotypes for a particular character: AA = homozygous dominant Aa = heterozygous

aa = homozygous recessive Phenotypes Phenotype is the physical appearance or other characteristic of an organism as a result of the interaction of its genotype

and the environment. Some examples would be: Size Shape Color The Punnett Square Is a square grid used in genetics to calculate

the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes among the offspring of a cross Phenotypes of Offspring's Use a Punnett Square

Punnett Square Example A a a Traits for color A

Punnett Square Example Cont.. a a A Aa

A Aa Aa Aa The male genotype is normally indicated at

the top and the female genotype is indicated in the vertical margin. homozygous dominant parents (PP x PP), all offspring will be homozygous dominant polled individuals.

When crossing homozygous recessive parents (pp x pp), all of the offspring will be horned (homozygous recessive) individuals. Crossing a heterozygous parent with a homozygous dominant parent (Pp x PP), the expected offspring would occur in a 1:1 ratio of homozygous dominant to

heterozygous individuals. Phenotype: All offspring would be polled. Punnett Square Example We have a Angus Bull and a Charolais Cow. The Angus (black) is Homozygous Dominant The Charolais (white) is Homozygous

Recessive How would you set up the Punnett Square? When crossing a homozygous dominant parent with a homozygous recessive parent (PP x pp), all offspring would be heterozygous and polled.

If two heterozygous parents are crossed (Pp x Pp), one can expect a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1, with one homozygous dominant polled, two heterozygous polled, and one homozygous recessive horned individuals. The expected phenotypic ratio of offspring would be 3:1 (polled to horned).

Lets Practice http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/00787 59864/student_view0/unit3/chapter10/virtu al_labs.html# Objectives

Explain Gregor Mendels laws of inheritance Discuss the difference between genotypes and phenotypes Label the three types of genotypes Draw and label a Punnett square Predict outcomes of a Punnett square

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