Major Divisions of Life

Major Divisions of Life

Phylum Arthropoda joint-footed animals Phylum Arthropoda the largest phylum comprises ~80% of all known animals all other phyla

Arthropoda Arthropoda Characteristics Triploblastic Organ level of organization Bilateral Symmetry Cephalization Eucoelomate

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Ch rma ta or da ta M ol lu

sc a Ar th ro po da An

ne l protostomes deuterostomes eucoelomates Similarities Between

Arthropods and Annelids 1. Segmentation: Arthropods and Annelids are both segmented Annelid Primitive Arthropod Similarities Between

Arthropods and Annelids 1. Segmentation Segmentation is reduced in Arthropods through: 1. Disappearance of segments 2. Fusion of segments 3. Structural and functional differentiation of segments

Tagmatization: The fusion and specialization of metameric segments. A developing Arthropod embryo Similarities Between Arthropods and Annelids 2. Nervous system: The nervous systems of

Arthropods and Annelids consist of a dorsal brain (cerebral ganglion) and a ventral nerve cord with ganglia in every segment. Annelid Nervous System segmental nerve cerebral ganglion mouth

ventral nerve cord segmental ganglion Arthropod Nervous System Segmental ganglion cerebral

ganglion ventral nerve cord Similarities Between Arthropods and Annelids 3. Primitive Arthropods have one pair of appendages per segment Annelid

Arthropod Similarities Between Arthropods and Annelids These appendages are said to be serially homologous to one another. Serial homology: the

correspondence (in the same individual) of repeated structures having the same origin and development. Examples of homologous characters: Vertebrate forelimbs Examples of analogous characters: bat wings and

insect wings Bat wing Fly wing serially homologous structures

Homology Serial Homology Analogy - 2 individuals - structures have

same developmental origin and same or different functions - 2 structures on 1 individual - 2 individuals - structures have different

developmental origins but same function bat wing & hand cheliped & swimmeret bat wing & insect wing

Similarities Between Arthropods and Annelids 1. Segmentation 2. Nervous system 3. Paired appendages Similarities Between Arthropods and Annelids

Despite these similarities Arthropods are a much more successful group of animals than Annelids. Over 1 million described species of Arthropods (probably 10 million undescribed) compared to 15,000 Annelids. What characteristics have enabled Arthropods to achieve such great diversity and

abundance? 1. Exoskeleton hardened external cuticle secreted by the epidermis composed of chitin; has internal ridges/projections called apodemes to which muscles attach benefits: protection without loss of mobility limits growth must be molted limits ultimate body size because of weight

epicuticle exocuticle endocuticle apodeme epicuticle

exocuticle Ecdysis (molting) under hormonal control endocuticle new endocuticle forms under exocuticle

exocuticle hardens old exocuticle ruptures ecdysis the animal backs out of old exoskeleton molting fluid

dissolves old endocuticle new exocuticle is secreted new exocuticle is formed under the old one

2. Tagmatization and jointed appendages The fusion of segments into blocks called tagmata (sing:tagma) that are specialized for certain functions head composed of 3 segments head composed of 5 fused segments

2. Tagmatization and jointed appendages usually each tagma has a pair of jointed appendages appendages may be highly modified with tagmata being specialized for certain functions (e.g. feeding, moving, sensory) appendages are essentially hollow levers that are moved by well-developed striated muscles (flexors and

extensors) and are capable of fast, powerful movement Raptorial leg Jumping leg Swimming leg Digging leg

Leg of diving beetle Honey bee leg 3. Respiratory System on land: most have a respiratory system that consists of tubes that deliver air directly to tissues and cells (tracheal system)

in water: most have gills these systems allow for a higher metabolic rate and level of activity Insect tracheal system spiracle trachea

Insect tracheal system 4. Sensory System similar to Annelida (ventral nerve cord, cerebral ganglia/brain) possess a variety of sensory organs (e.g. simple and compound eyes, antennae,

chemoreceptors, sensory hairs) 5. Complex Behavior have complex innate behaviors and some are capable of learning some even show communication and cooperation Spiny lobster cooperative behavior

Spiny lobster migration behavior Dr. Herrnkind: 6. Metamorphosis most have a larval stage that differs morphologically and behaviorally from the adult reduces competition between larvae and adults by allowing them to occupy different ecological niches

Arthropoda Characteristics Feeding and Digestion Free living and parasitic forms Fish louse Parasitic isopods Cymothoa exigua

The only known case of a parasite substituting itself for a hosts organ Arthropoda Characteristics Digestive System complete with regional specialization Generalized Arthropod Digestive System midgut

foregut (lined with cuticle) mouth hindgut (lined with cuticle) anus

Arthropoda Characteristics Circulatory System open circulatory system consisting of a hemocoel (main body-cavity) filled with hemolymph (blood) pericardial sinus heart

Arthropoda Characteristics Excretion usually glands, some classes have specialized excretory systems Reproduction usually sexual and dioecious usually internal fertilization

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Ci rrip ed ia Ch ilo po da Di

plo po da Ins ec ta os tra

ca Subphylum Chelicerata Ma lac Br

an ch iop od a Ar ac hn

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Subphylum Trilobita Subphylum Crustacea Subphylum Uniramia * Subphylum Trilobita (Class Trilobitmorpha)

all are extinct the most diverse of the extinct arthropod groups (~5000 genera) Subphylum Chelicerata no antennae 6 pairs of appendages: 1st pair = pincer, fang-like chelicerae

2nd pair = pedipalps 3rd 6th pair = walking legs body divided into 2 tagmata opisthosoma: consists of the abdomen prosoma: consists of the head and all the legs

Body Plan chelicerae pedipalps prosoma walking legs

opisthostoma Subphylum Chelicerata Class Merostomata Horseshoe crabs have been essentially unchanged for ~250 million years Class Merostomata

opisthosoma prosoma telson carapace compound eye chelicerae book gills

walking legs Class Merostomata Subphylum Chelicerata Class Arachnida

Class Arachnida spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, chiggers, daddy longlegs They usually have several adaptations for life on land: book lungs or tracheal system or both waxy cuticle pedipalps

Class Arachnida arachnids as parasites chiggers (mites) and ticks Class Arachnida arachnids as disease vectors Lyme disease is caused by infection with a bacteria that is transmitted by tick bites

Deer tick Borellia Subphylum Chelicerata Class Pycnogonida sea spiders ~1000 marine species

males carry the eggs Subphylum Crustacea most are marine, some terrestrial and freshwater head has 2 pairs of antennae appendages are primitively biramous (have 2 major branches) body divided into 2 tagmata:

cephalothorax: consists of the head and the thorax abdomen Subphylum Crustacea have mandibles, 2 pairs of maxillae, and 1 pair of legs per segment

cephalothorax: 2 pairs of antennae mandibles 1st and 2nd maxillae 3 pairs of maxillipeds 5 pairs of walking legs abdomen usually has 6 segments

# 1-5 have pairs of swimmerets last segment has a pair of uropods and a telson Subphylum Crustacea Class Branchiopoda sea monkeys and water fleas marine and freshwater

important zooplankton Subphylum Crustacea Class Ostracoda have a bivalved carapace marine and freshwater reduced number of appendages

Subphylum Crustacea Class Copepoda mainly marine, some freshwater and terrestrial (e.g. mosses) usually the most abundant animal in the plankton median eye Extremely long first antennae

Subphylum Crustacea Class Cirripedia acorn barnacles and gooseneck barnacles marine and sessile as adults feed with modified appendages called cirri

Class Cirripedia modified body form Cirri (legs) penis mouth anus

Peduncle (absent in stalkless barnacles) ovary Adhesive gland

Class Cirripedia often form dense mats hermaphroditic with long extendable penis to reach neighbors Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca largest class of Crustacea (23,000

species) marine, freshwater, terrestrial shows great diversity Class Malacostraca Class Malacostraca contains the largest Arthropods

Who are the Arthropods closest relatives ? Traditionally, Arthropods were thought to have derived from an Annelid-like ancestor. This hypothesis was based mainly on morphological similarities Neilson 2001

A new phylogeny based on RNA sequence data has changed our view of the relationship between Arthropods and Annelids (and many other taxa). According to this new view, Arthropods are more closely related to some of the pseudocoelomates (e.g. nematodes) than Annelids.

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