Main title 48 pt Sub title 24 pt - OneFPA.org

Main title 48 pt Sub title 24 pt - OneFPA.org

The Optimal Basis Increase Trust Making AB Trusts Income Tax Efficient After ATRA Presented by: Edwin P Morrow III, JD, LL.M., MBA, CFP, RFC, Senior Wealth Specialist [email protected] 5/15/2015 Financial Planning Association CE Information provided is not intended to be individual tax or legal advice. Agenda

Tax law changes and the lure of portability Increased importance of basis and income tax Marital trusts loopholes, hidden problems Adapting, administering and re-designing bypass trusts for the optimal basis Narrowly crafting GPOAs for optimal effect Using the Delaware Tax Trap Adapting disclaimer-based plans Seizing basis opportunity for irrevocable trusts Optimizing basis at first death; upstream basis 2 Whats New in Estate Tax Planning? Permanent $5 million estate/gift/GST, adjusted for inflation ($250,000 added in just two years with LOW inflation, up to $5.43 million in 2015), with spousal portability Greenbook proposals propose again to make $3.5 million estate/gst excl., $1 million gift excl, 45% top rate unlikely to pass, but possible that Congress caves in on gift tax or other loophole closers (GRATs, IGTs, entity valuation). Even in recent Republican House repeal proposal, the gift tax is left intact. ------------------Well explore why.

3 Whats New in Income Tax Planning? For 2013, new tax law (ATRA and ACA): New top ordinary income tax rates of 39.6% and 20% LTCG/QD on taxable income (not AGI) over: $457,600 (Married filing jointly) $12,150 (trusts/estates) (2014 numbers - brackets adjusts for inflation) Medicare Surtax of 3.8% (net investment income) or 0.9% (wages) Hits taxpayers with AGI over $200k/$250k Trusts/estates AGI over only $12,300 in 2015 Above does not count 1.2% effect of Pease limitations or state income tax!) 4 The Challenge for Sub $10.86 Million Estates The popular financial press, even sophisticated CFPs, CPAs, and yes, even attorneys are questioning bypass trusts or even the need for trusts at all for the 99% The most common solutions cited are to ditch the trust altogether, use disclaimer funding, or use an all QTIP approach all of

these have significant issues and flaws. 5 Three Key Tax Problems to Address 1. Lack of 2nd basis step up that a simple I love you will or even intestacy would probably provide the family 2. Potentially higher trust income tax rates 3. Unique assets may get worse tax treatment See page 3-4 of CLE outline goal of this CLE turn these negatives into POSITIVES Whats Now Involved in Estate Planning? Inter-vivos gifting is more complex and has to include income tax issues. Assets that most benefit from a new basis at death (inclusion in gross estate): Self-created intellectual property (copyrights, art, etc.) (ordinary) Negative basis or highly depreciated property (25% recapture or ord.) Gold, artwork and collectibles (28% rate) Trade off now is between transfer tax not affecting 99% of taxpayers and capital gains tax (55%->40%, 15%>23.8% (plus state income taxes up to 13.3%), affecting over 99% of your clients. Income tax is more important now for many clients than estate tax even in estate planning.

7 Whats Now Involved in Estate Planning? Bottom line: theres a new paradigm in town - income tax basis management and management of ongoing income tax: Rethink giving away significantly appreciated assets during lifetime due to carryover basis rules of IRC 1015 (but, what if we could get a step up at an older relatives death, upstream?, discussed later) However, ATRA significantly complicated the analysis --Malpractice risk? Must we point out the income tax perils of AB trusts - similar to the old warning about not using the unified credit in the estate of the first spouse to die before portability do your memos explain basis, discounting, tax shifting and other income tax issues of AB trusts?! 8 Why not ditch the trust? Traditional Asset Protection/Family Bloodline State Estate/Inheritance Tax Bypass 12-20%

Quirks of Portability, DSUE, simultaneous death, remarriage, GST exclusion not porting Income Tax Benefit? - state, spray, etc See page 4-8 of CLE outline 9 Marital Trusts The Clayton QTIP and One Lung Trusts A Clayton QTIP offers some advantages over disclaimer planning, and is a great tool for adding flexibility, but still begs the question of what the ultimate decision will be as to division between bypass/QTIP and what those terms will be. Issues and Solutions to exploiting Clayton QTIPs: Is the spouse executor? If so, is there a gift tax issue? Does the spouse have enough assets to care? How

can we avoid the issue altogether by drafting the bypass trust so as to not cause a gift? Might asset protection be affected if spouses actions cause the bypass to be funded? Waterfall disclaimers See page 9-11 of CLE material 10 Marital Trusts Simple Solutions? QTIP marital trust most common choice requires 706 and election and has Rev. Proc. issues, enables separate state QTIP election in many states GPOA marital trust less common, but may have various advantages over QTIP no 706, no valuation issues, no Rev. Proc issues but rigid GPOA required Both force a Step DOWN (as well as up) in basis, force out income, cannot use broad lifetime limited powers of appointment (LPOAs) or spray income, not as ideal for state/federal estate tax

savings even w/portability, for all the reasons previously discussed See page 11-14 of CLE outline, example page 12 11 Marital Trusts Simple Solutions? Overlooked problems with businesses, LLCs, real estate where fractional interests go into trust: Example: John leaves of home, of LLC (underlying value $500,000 each) to QTIP. His wife Jane has the other half. She lives 8 years, the value doubles. Is the basis to the heirs (be it in trust or otherwise) $1,000,000 for the home, $1,000,000 for the LLC? Well, this depends on the type of marital trust. At 30% valuation discount for a noncontrolling 50% share (LLC>TIC), it may be as low as $350,000 FMV basis for each 50% share, $1.4 million, not $2 million at $600,000 lost basis times 23.8% (28.8%) plus up to 13% state capital gains tax - thats nearly a two hundred thousand dollar mistake See page 11-14 of CLE outline, example page 12 For how to get $250,000 exclusion, see 113 12

Understanding Powers of Appointment Powers of Appointment (POA) have TREMENDOUS income tax planning potential for both stepping up basis (at death) and spraying income (lifetime). GPOA (general power of appointment) power to appoint to yourself, your estate, or creditors of either can be lifetime, or testamentary (only effective at death) triggers gift tax/estate inclusion LPOA (limited powers of appointment) power to appoint that excludes power to appoint to self, estate, or creditors or either usually does NOT trigger gift tax or estate inclusion, except special circumstance See further definitions page 86 13 Other Ways to Adapt Bypass Trusts for Basis 1.

Trustee or trust protectors discretion to distribute the entire trust to spouse 2. Adding GPOA by Private/Non-Judicial Settlement, court ordered amendment or reformation, decanting (like GM deciding its best to add a seat belt later) 3. Using collateral power LPOA held by non-fiduciary family member to distribute/decant to surv. spouse 4. Late QTIP? Really, really late?? (cite page 15) See page 13-15 of CLE outline - problems 14 Other Ways to Adapt Bypass Trusts for Basis 5. Use LPOA that defaults to GPOA to the extent not exercised (do not default to powerholders estate), exercise LPOA over IRD/high basis assets/cash, or more if needed to reduce estate

6. Use LPOA over entire trust, but exercise the power in a way so as to trigger the Delaware Tax Trap (IRC Section 2041(a) (3)). Exercise can be triggered by formula. 7. Use a formula testamentary GPOA with caps and ordering rules to prevent a step down yet enable a step up, without incurring estate tax. See page 14-15 of CLE outline Optimal Basis Increase Trust 15 Who cares about step down? First, understand that the step up is a step down as

well. People forget this at their peril. Marital trusts? John Bogle (Vanguard founder, former CEO), opined on CNBC in May 2013 that, while he recommends stocks for the long haul, he still estimates not one but two 50% drops in the market over the next decade. Sound crazy? what about decedents who died in 2008-2009? (see simple example page 9) Think the bond market is safe from drops? Consider a 10 year duration bond fund would lose 25% from a mere 2% interest rate increase anyone remember the 70s-early 80s or think rates cannot go up? 16 Traditional AB Trust - Basis Effect Planning Steps At Johns Death At Marys Death 17 Marital Planning Steps &(QTIP)

Strategies Trust Basis Effect Planning Steps & Strategies At Johns Death At Marys Death 18 Optimal Basis Increase Trust Basis Effect Planning Steps & Strategies Planning Steps & Strategies At Johns Death At Marys Death Uses GPOA or LPOA, Section 2041 To trigger estate inclusion and 1014 step up 19

Optimal Basis Planning Steps & Strategies Increase Trust A simplified list and columns of assets in bypass trust from $2 million left to spouse in bypass trust, 8 years later (not a model portfolio): Traditional deductible IRA basis $0, FMV $700,000 Total IRD Property basis $0 FMV $700,000 Apple Stock (the iPhone 9 flopped), basis $500,000, FMV $200,000 Condo in Florida (hurricane depresses value), basis $1,000,000, FMV $600,000 LT Bond portfolio (inflation depressed value) basis $400,000 FMV $300,000 Various stocks that have decreased in value basis $150,000, FMV $100,000 Total loss property basis $2,050,000, FMV $1,200,000

Rental Real Estate basis $200,000, FMV $600,000 Various stocks that have increased in value basis $400,000, FMV $900,000 ST Bond Portfolio, Money market, Cash basis $400,000, FMV $400,000 Gold basis $100,000 FMV $200,000 Total gain property basis $1,100,000 FMV $2,100,000 Total at Janes death basis $3,150,000 FMV $4,000,000 Ideally, clients want a step up for appreciated assets that would benefit from basis increase, and keep existing basis on assets that would otherwise be stepped down if in the estate See page 20-22 of CLE outline 20 Optimal Basis Planning Steps & Strategies

Increase Trust Differing Basis Results at surviving spouses death under three planning structures: New Basis at Surviving Spouses Death if using: Ordinary Bypass QTIP/outright Traditional deductible IRA Apple Stock (the iPhone 9 flopped), Condo in Florida (hurricane depresses value), LT Bond portfolio (inflation depressed value) Various stocks that have decreased in value Rental Real Estate Various stocks that have increased in value ST Bond Portfolio, Money market, Cash Gold Total Basis for Beneficiaries at Janes death $0 $0 OBIT $0 $500,000 $200,000 $500,000

$1,000,000 $600,000 $1,000,000 $400,000 $300,000 $400,000 $150,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000 $600,000 $600,000 $400,000 $900,000 $900,000 $400,000 $400,000 $400,000 $100,000 $200,000 $200,000 $3,150,000 $3,300,000 $4,150,000 21 Capping to Soak Up AEA Planning StepsInclusion/GPOA & Strategies Adding/drafting GPOAs is easy when both spouses have estates under $5.34 million (one AEA) Just as we do with AB splits, we want to cap the amount of the GPOA, as we typically cap the amount going to a marital trust, to optimize tax benefits. Trickier - Which assets do we want to soak up the coupon if the available exclusion amount is limited, and can we have assets chosen at the trustees

discretion, the powerholders discretion? Could this force pro-rata inclusion? Do we want a $500,000 block of stock with $490,000 basis to soak up the same coupon as a $500,000 building with basis of $180,000? Only matters for mid-size/larger estates. See page 25-27 of CLE outline 22 Capping to Soak Up AEA Planning StepsInclusion/GPOA & Strategies Can we simply grant the trustee the power to pick and choose which assets? In many ways this is optimal and easiest, and the trustee could be indemnified for anything done in good faith. Does this work? Unsure. If pecuniary, could this lead to a minimal amount of gain upon funding? Unclear. Informal discussion with Howard Zaritsky last month who says probably works fine, and I agree, but until there is more guidance, my take is that you can get

darned close to what you want with a set ordering formula, and you can have a trust protector with a power to modify that formula if later desired, or if further guidance is forthcoming. See page 26-27 of CLE outline 23 Crafting GPOAs Planning Steps & Strategies For Fidelity/Protection GPOAs in marital trusts must be very narrow However, all other GPOAs can be narrowly crafted to prevent any unwanted exercise as a practical matter

Can be conditioned on consent from a non-adverse party, essentially, a non-beneficiary can even be a trustee!!! (though I personally would not use trustee) Testamentary GPOA not necessarily subject to powerholders estates creditors (except e.g. CA, difference in uniform act draft, 2nd/3rd restatements) See page 32-35 of CLE outline 24 Adapting GPOA Caps for STATE estate taxes Planning Steps & Strategies You dont want to incur $12-$20 state estate tax for a mere $1 in basis increase. Most formulas will base cap on STATE as well. It would be more complicated of a formula to cause state estate tax if the income tax benefit outweighs the state estate tax

practitioners will probably opt for simplicity and prevent any formula GPOA from causing additional state estate tax (even if there would be state and federal income tax benefit that might outweigh any state estate tax) Perhaps client would only want real estate or depreciable assets with substantial difference between basis and FMV to justify inclusion and state estate taxes Remember your clients could move to a state with estate tax! See page 30-31 of CLE outline 25 Creditor Planning StepsExposure & Strategies with Formula GPOAs? What about the rare case where the power holders estate is completely insolvent, perhaps due to a large wrongful death lawsuit. Could the GPOA assets be brought into his/her estate?

(ignoring possible jurisdictional problems) What about spousal elective share? Generally, these are minimal concerns, but there is a difference between exercise and lapse of a testamentary GPOA and California has more negative law, and more negative law is proposed in new Uniform Act. Spousal elective share risk is overblown and unwarranted. See page 36-39 of CLE outline 26 Potential Issue with Planning Steps & Strategies Formula GPOAs? Could the IRS claim that by the spouse manipulating his/her available applicable exclusion amount, that the formula GPOAs cap is illusory? After all, spouse could spend all his/her money, or leave it all to new

spouse/charity and now have more power over the bypass trust in theory (independent significance) The Kurz case could give some pause in this regard, but it is a completely different scenario and should not be cause for concern. Still, I might mitigate by omitting marital/charitable. See page 48-51 of CLE outline 27 Using the Delaware Planning Steps & Strategies Tax Trap In Lieu of GPOA Sounds crazy? What the heck is the Delaware Tax Trap (DTT)? IRC 2041(a)(3) complicated extending rule against

perpetuities via LPOA if you appoint to a trust granting a powerholder a POA, can this new power be exercised so as to postpone the vesting of any estate or interest in such property, or suspend the absolute ownership or power of alienation of such property, for a period ascertainable without regard to the date of the creation of the first power Most states require limited powers of appointment to refer back to the creation date of the first power, foreclosing use. I propose opt-in state statutes that would enable this. However, most states permit GPOAs to postpone vesting, ownership without regard to the date of the creation of the first power. See page 40-44 of CLE outline 28 Using the Delaware Planning Steps & Strategies Tax Trap In Lieu of GPOA

So, similar to the formula GPOA discussion, why not simply use a LPOA to appoint assets for which a basis increase/estate inclusion is desired, to a Delaware Tax Trapping Trust (sounds complicated, but you have all drafted these before without knowing it). Similarly, any IRD/cash/assets with basis higher than FMV might go to beneficiary and/or ordinary trust avoiding DTT Spouse can later pick and choose, amending the exercise, to choose assets children are most likely to sell Chief drawback of PEG power is reduced asset protection, flexibility, increased estate inclusion for children but, consider ideas in outline to mitigate these risks. See page 40-44 of CLE outline, extensive comparison page 53 29 Busting Spousal Planning

Steps & Strategies Disclaimer Myths You have all been taught that spouses using any disclaimer funding have to disclaim any powers of appointment in trusts receiving disclaimed assets. This is wrong, or at least, overbroad A POA that can only trigger estate/gift tax, or that is limited by ascertainable standard, CAN BE retained. OBIT clauses meet this requirement See page 59-60 of CLE outline, sample clauses 30 Traditional Trust Disclaimer Plan/Effect

Planning StepsAB & Strategies Planning Steps At Johns Death Method Usual Method Alternate After Marys Disclaimer Mary cannot be trustee w/discretionary spray power, has no lifetime or testamentary power of appointment (or disclaims it) 31 OBIT Disclaimer Planning StepsTrust & Strategies Plan/Effect Planning Steps At Johns Death

Usual Disclaimer Plan At Marys Disclaimer Mary has fiduciary POA limited by HEMS, taxable LPOAs to shift income (life), testamentary GPOA power to increase basis (at death) 32 OBIT Techniques: Planning Steps & StrategiesExisting Irrevocable Trusts This is a HUGE opportunity to provide significant value for widows, widowers having bypass trusts, or anyone else who has inherited an interest in a GST exempt trust (often a nonexempt trust would have a GPOA anyway, but those are ideal) How many widows/widowers as beneficiaries of bypass trusts have over $5.34 million of their own assets (or, whatever their AEA is, if their late spouse died recently, they may have more from DSUE, or could have less from prior taxable gifts). 1%?

If they already have an LPOA, use the Delaware Tax Trap, unless GST concerns or the family situation rules out granting a presently exercisable GPOA (but consider mitigating ideas in outline). See page 90-98 of CLE outline; review checklist for basis increase 33 OBIT Techniques: Planning Steps & StrategiesExisting Irrevocable Trusts If there is not an LPOA, DO NOT GIVE UP, there are many ways to effect an amendment, decanting, or reformation under the UTC or common law, even if no amendment/protector provision Bosch, et al, should not apply here the same as reformations for marital trusts, see-through trusts designed to qualify as a

designated beneficiary, charitable trusts, etc. Doing nothing ensures no step up a simple reformation may save family hundreds of thousands of dollars in capital gains tax Remember, LPOA/GPOAs do not have to be as broad as people often make them we would make such a POA added for this purpose very narrow indeed See page 90-98 of CLE outline 34 Ordinary A/B Trust Ongoing Tax Effect Planning Steps & Strategies At Johns Death Tax Effect to Spouse and Doe Family, during

spouses lifetime Above rates refer to trust income above $12,150 in 2014 (top rates), ignoring state income tax, AMT, or special tax rates for collectibles, depreciation recapture 35 Income Tax Efficient Trust Ongoing Tax Effect At Johns Death Tax Effect to spouse and Doe Family during spouses life 36 Optimizing Basis Planning Steps & Strategies at First Death? Residents of non-community property states can establish an Alaska or Tennessee Community Property Trust, transferring lower basis,

non-IRA type assets into such a trust. Makes more sense for long marriages where any asset would be marital in a divorce anyway Requires Alaska or TN trustee Negative 1943 U.S. Supreme Court Harmon case on elective CP Since 1998, untested in courts, but at least no negative PLR or case, IRS silent on whether this works for IRC Sec. 1014(b)(6) double new basis (hopefully, a step up). Conflict of Laws indicates that a married couple can choose which state law to apply to their property interests should not violate public policy Remember, community property can be double stepped down, but due diligence/monitoring may be able to prevent by agreement See page 62-64 of CLE outline

37 Optimizing Basis Planning Steps & Strategies at First Death? What about a Joint GPOA Trust? Give each spouse a lifetime GPOA over the other spouses assets? (fka poorer spouse funding technique) Alan Gassman refers to this as JEST Joint Exempt Step Up Trust see Leimberg LISI commentary #2086, which he co-authored with Tom Ellwanger and Kacie Hohnadell Several PLRs would deny step up (and even force a step down), but maybe the IRS is wrong it can easily disavow PLRs

My take is that the Alaska/TN Community Property Trust is slightly safer at least for mid-size or larger estates, but there are some plausible techniques to get around the IRS interpretation of IRC 1014; and, a JEST is cheaper (and no separate ongoing trustee fee) See page 50-58 of CLE outline 38 Optimizing Basis Planning Steps & Strategies at First Death? Under the JEST plan, a couple would first create a jointly funded revocable living trust (two separate trusts could work as well - my own preference)

Each spouse would provide the other with a testamentary GPOA, so that some of the assets of the trust, to the extent that there are sufficient assets in the trust, even if originally contributed by the surviving spouse, are included in the estate of the first spouse to die under IRC Sec. 2041. Accordingly, the assets of the entire trust obtain a new basis under IRC Sec. 1014 because they are deemed to have emanated from the deceased spouse. According to the JEST proponents, none of the credit shelter trust formed by the estate of the first spouse to die would be included in the surviving spouses estate, even though the contributing surviving spouse is a beneficiary. See page 65-74 of CLE outline 39 Optimizing Planning Steps &Basis Strategiesat First Death: 2523/1014 Risks of JEST: Inclusion of the credit shelter trust in the estate of the surviving spouse under either IRC Sec. 2036 or 2038. Potential loss of creditor protection as to the surviving spouse

unless the trust is formed in a DAPT jurisdiction. The above are highly unlikely since exercised GPOAs make the powerholder the settlor/grantor for state and tax law. The gift on death to the surviving spouse might not qualify for the lifetime marital deduction under IRC 2523. This one is the most likely risk, but there are several PLRs which allowed it. IRC Sec. 1014(e) could deny the step up because the assets go back to the donor within one year of the death of the first spouse to die. Of course, there are arguments against this and techniques to avoid this even if those arguments fail. See page 65-74 of OBIT white paper outline, if interested in further CLE, March CLE w/Gassman at www.straffordpub.com 40 Income Tax Basis Upstream Planning Planning Steps & Strategies Consider granting GPOAs in Crummey and other trusts to older beneficiaries, such as parents, parents-in-laws, provided they are

appropriately circumscribed as discussed above. See CCH Estate Planning article, The Upstream Crummey Optimal Basis Increase Trust. This largely avoids the Section 1014(e) and 2523 issues discussed regarding JEST trusts This can be especially powerful for clients with low basis assets, especially depreciable assets (or LLC/LPs holding depreciable assets that terminate or make 754 election). See page 75-86 of CLE 41 Upstream Gifting Crummey Optimal Basis Increase Trust (during client/parents life) Parent #1 Parent #2 (has $ 20 million estate, no creditor issues) (has $ 2 million

estate, has LTC insurance, no creditor issues) $14,000 Crummey Parent #3 (has $5,000 estate, is on Medicaid) No Crummey Power ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Client has $8 million estate, Client transfers annual exclusion gifts $2 million of which is really to a Crummey trust for parents, spouse Gift $140,000 and descendants with various grantor low basis stock and real estate that has been trust provisions (power to substitute, depreciated. He worries pay income to spouse, etc)

about 43.4% income tax (and 10 beneficiaries times $14,000 (not 25% recapture), not estate counting spouse). Gift splitting may tax, is told to forget trusts be possible, but lets ignore here. Buys low basis property Spouse (normally Crummey powers limited $14,000 Crummey to 5%/$5000 for ETIP and GST, but no need to waste GST allocation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 X $14,000 Crummey powers Child #1, Child #2, Child #3, Grandchild #1a, #1b, #3a, #3b, #3c Typically Crummey powers have 30-60 day withdrawal window. Some complexity can be avoided if Crummey powers are limited to $5,000/5% of corpus (here, $50,000/yr), which avoids having to use hanging powers. However, with $10.68 million of applicable exclusion amount to burn, many clients could avoid the complexity of hanging powers or even Crummey powers altogether. Parents,

spouse and descendants are named beneficiaries, wholly discretionary probably needed to avoid Medicaid issue for Parent #3. Upstream Gifting Crummey Optimal Basis Increase Trust (at parent/in-laws death) Parent #1 Parent #2 (has $ 20 million estate, no creditor issues). No GPOA (has $ 2 million estate, has LTC insurance, no creditor issues) Parent #2 has formula GPOA Parent #3 (has $5,000 estate, is on Medicaid) Parent #3 has LPOA to trigger DTT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Client has note from installment sale to the grantor Crummey Trust. Trust makes Note payment There are uncertainties about the grantor trust status of a trust where GPOA lapses, and trust continues or decants to another trust with similar grantor powers held by client, but this can be avoided with a belt and suspenders approach. Trust continues as grantor trust as to settlor until death. At parents death, inclusion/step up Income/Dist. Spouse Can still be the primary/preferred

beneficiary of the trust, getting income/principal Spouse has formula GPOA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Child #1, Child #2, Child #3, Grandchild #1a, #1b, #3a, #3b, #3c After spouses death, another step up in basis to extent of AEA Uncertainties under 1014(e) if parent dies within one year of gifts and property reverts to client/spouse or trust for client/spouse avoid by either requiring one year curing, do not sell the property (1014(e)(2) addresses sale) or, as discussed in Morrow/Gassman article, parents might appoint (or lapse causes to pass) property to trust for descendants, and children might have LPOA to appoint to mom/dad. Income Tax Basis Upstream Planning How to get Steps more low basis assets upstream Planning & Strategies

Installment sales to the Crummey grantor trust GRATs pouring over into upstream Crummey Fractional interest discounting Swapping (grantor substituting assets of equal value) In short, all the techniques we traditionally use for those clients fortunate enough to otherwise be subject to estate tax 44 Conclusions Optimizing Basis and Income Planning Steps & Strategies Tax Efficiency Optimal basis increase trusts (OBITs) have all the upside of a traditional bypass trust, but negate the two principal downsides, even turning them into positives (optimizing

basis, better income tax by spraying income and/or 678a) Avoids all the negatives of outright bequests or marital trusts (step down in basis, fractional discounting, trapping income with no spray/gifting ability, 2519 risk); QTIPs/portability may still be needed or desired for various narrow situations (e.g. QRP/IRA rollover, $9-$10 million estate w/kids from same marriage), but suffer from weaker ongoing gifting/shifting options see comparison chart Negative? No off the shelf, NOLO press online trust form, these require a real attorney, new drafting! 45 Conclusions Planning Steps & Strategies Updated material will be periodically added to the white paper at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2436964

Latest Articles: The Art of Avoiding Ohio Income Tax Using Trusts, Ohio Probate Law Journal, May/June 2014 issue Ed Morrow & Steve Oshins on Ferri v. Powell-Ferri: Asset Protection Lessons, Perils and Opportunities with Decanting, LISI Asset Protection Newsletter #240 The Upstream Crummey Optimal Basis Increase Trust CCH Estate Planning Review, May 2014 issue Clark v. Rameker: Supreme Court Holds that IRAs are Not Protected in Bankruptcy - Are Inherited Spousal IRAs and Even Rollover IRAs Threatened? LISI Asset Protection Newsletter #248 (June 16, 2014). 50 State IRA Creditor Exemption Chart with Commentary. LISI Asset Protection Newsletter #256 (August 7, 2014). 46 Questions? Planning Steps & Strategies

Email [email protected] or [email protected] 47

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