Magma Supply Vs Magma Plumbing - UW Oceanography

Magma Supply Vs Magma Plumbing - UW Oceanography

OCEAN/ESS 410 Class 1. Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics William Wilcock Lecture/Lab Learning Goals Know and be able to sketch the basic structure of the Earth (crust, lower/upper mantle, core). Be able to describe the process of planetary differentiation Be able to define plate tectonic theory and the 3 types of plate boundary Understand the linkages between plate tectonics and

mantle convection Be able to identify tectonic features on a global scale map of topography/bathymetry (with or without seismicity) - LAB Plate Tectonics island arc trench fracture zone trench

MOR earthquakes ocean crust melt magma adiabatically rising sediments, igneous mantle material crust & mantle continental crust

earthquakes Mantle Mantle melt Internal Structure of the Earth. The Earth is a differentiated Planet

Differentiation Planetary Differentiation early in Earths history Perhaps the most important process a- planet goes through The Earth as a Heat Engine Heat generated by 1. Radioactivity (U, Th, K isotopes) 2. Solidification of Inner Core Heat Lost from the Earth by

1. Mantle Convection Heat Convection - Heating From Below } Conduction Important } Conduction Important Downwelling Plume

Upwelling Plume It is a very efficient means to transport heat Thermal Boundary Layer Convection Important Convection (or advection)

refers to the transport of heat by motion in a liquid or a gas Thermal Boundary Layer A simplistic model of mantle convection and plate tectonics You will commonly see mantle convection depicted in a simple manner,

similar to this figure. This depiction is reasonable at subduction zones but not very accurate at mid-ocean ridges. (figure from Earth by F. Press and R. Siever, 3rd. edition, 1982) Heat Convection - Internal Heating Thermal Boundary Layer Broad Region of Diffuse Upwelling

Downwelling Plume Convection in the Earths mantle is driven primarily (8090%) by internal heating from the decay of long lived radioactive isotopes of potassium, uranium and thorium and not heat loss from the core (1020%). The pattern of

convection for internal heating is different from bottom heating. Many Aspects Mantle Convection in the Earth are Still Incompletely Understood volcanic island chain trench ocean crust mid-ocean ridge

island arc cont. crust from Kellogg et al., 1999 Global Bathymetry Sandwell and Smith Plate Tectonic Theory The Earths surface is made up of a number of a small

number of rigid plates that move relative to one another. Deformation near the earths surface is concentrated along the boundaries between. Plates boundaries may be sites of Divergence - oceanic spreading centers and rifts Convergence - subduction zones and regions of continental collision Motions that are orthogonal to the plate boundary transform faults. Tectonic Plates

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