Lit Terms 2013

Lit Terms 2013

3 1 0 2 s m r e Lit T r e t p a h

lC a n i F e Th Lets review what we already know (Please write this down if you dont have it in your notes) Setting Setting is the time and place of a

story/play in longer stories/plays there can be multiple settings it includes its geographical location a specific time of day a time period the weather Importance Setting can contribute many things to a story: the emotional effect the conflict(s) the characterization

Plot What is a plot? We know a plot has five (5) parts. Exposition or basic action Complications or Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution or Denouement Parts of the plot: Exposition Exposition is the part of the plot that introduces the basic situation and gives

information about the characters and their problems. It is the setting of the stage. Exposition foreshadows the conflict. Exposition Parts of the plot: Complications Complications arise when the characters take steps to deal with the conflict introduced in the exposition. Complications are sometimes called rising action. Complications Exposition

Parts of the plot: Climax/ Apex The climax is the moment of greatest emotional intensity or suspense. The climax marks the moment when the conflict must be resolved in one way or another. Climax Complications Exposition Parts of the Plot: Falling Action Falling action is comprised of events that move the reader from the high point of the

climax towards the resolution. Climax Complications Exposition Falling action Parts of the Plot: Resolution Resolution, also known as denouement, usually settles the conflict and is typically the last event in the story. Resolution often ties up the loose endsbut it

doesnt have to. Climax Complications Exposition Falling action Resolution Character: What is a character? a person (or animal) that carries out the action in a piece of literature

A dynamic character or evolves during the story or novel. A static character does not change during a story or novel. A round character is well-developed during a story or novel. A flat character is not well-developed during a story or novel. Characterization The techniques a writer uses to develop the readers understanding of characters This can be done by. . . Indirect characterization

the characters speech/words, thoughts, and actions the characters appearance what other characters in the story think or say about a character Direct characterization the author tells us directly about the character Conflict Conflict is the struggle or clash between opposition of the forces in a story This opposition occurs between the protagonist and another character/force

All stories have a conflict Longer stories may have multiple conflicts Conflict is what keeps the story moving from event to event Types of Conflict Conflict is always either: External Conflict is struggle between a character and a force outside him/herself Internal Conflict is a struggle within the

characters mind 5 Kinds of conflict: Character vs. Character Character vs. Nature Character vs. Society Character vs. Self Character vs. Fate/Destiny Point of View Point of view is the perspective from which the story is told.

What we learn about characters, events, and places comes from the narratorthe person telling the story Point of View: Types 4 Common Types Omniscient First person Third person limited Third person objective Omniscient P.O.V. In the omniscient point of view, the narrator knows everything about the story. Omniscient means all-knowing

The narrator is not a character in the story and almost never refers to him/herself directly. The narrator acts like an observer. Third-Person-Limited P.O.V. The narrator zooms in on the thoughts and feelings of one character. The narrator talks about the character using he or she. The narrators knowledge is seen through the eyes of one character, not all. Third Person Objective P.O.V. The narrator tells us only what he/she

observes the other characters doing. The narrator is very much like a reporter. First Person P.O.V. The narrator is one of the characters in the story and tells the story using the pronoun I. All of the information we get about the story comes through this narratorwe see his/her view of the story. Lit Terms that we already know and are fair game for your quiz on Friday:

Foreshadowing Flashback/ Flashforward Theme Irony Verbal- Verbal irony is when a speaker says one thing and really means another Situational- Situational irony occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens or when there is a contrast between what we expect to happen and really does happen.

Dramatic- Dramatic irony occurs when the audience or reader knows something important that a character in a play or story does not know. Dialogue vs. Dialect Dialogue is the conversation that occurs between characters in a story or play. Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a

particular region or a particular group of people. Genre Genre is the category of literature that a work is classified under. Most literary gurus find 5 categories of literature Nonfiction Fiction Poetry Drama Myth Fiction vs. Nonfiction

Fiction consists of stories that are made up. Within the category of fiction, there are many sub-categories: Nonfiction consists of stories/articles that are true and are based in fact. Within nonfiction, there are sub-categories: Fantasy Memoir

Science fiction Autobiography Historical fiction Biography Realistic fiction Informational Poetry vs. Drama Poetry is a type of

rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery to appeal to the readers emotion and senses. There are different types of poems: lyric, narrative, epic, ballad Drama is a story that is written to be acted out for an audience. There are two different kinds of dramatic productions:

Tragedy Comedy Myth A myth is a traditional story rooted in a particular culture, is basically religious, and usually serves to explain a ritual, a belief, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. Diction Diction refers to the writers choice of words. Diction is an essential element of a writers style. Connotation vs.

Denotation Connotation is the emotional meaning words have. Connotation is the difference between the following words: house, home, digs, pad, shack Denotation is the dictionary meaning of a wordits literal meaning. Tone vs. Mood

Tone is the attitude an author takes toward a subject, a character, or the audience. Mood is a storys atmosphere or the feeling it evokes. Figurative Language Is the use of language that describes one thing in terms of another but is not meant to be taken literally. Figurative Language is a

literary device AND it includes other literary devices that can be classified as figurative language. Other Figurative Language Literary Devices: Simile Metaphor Personification Imagery Simile vs. Metaphor

Simile: comparison Metaphor: a comparison that uses like or as that does not use like or as Examples: Examples: That baby is as cute as a kitten. After being sick for five

days, Ms. Welsh is as busy as a bee. That old lady is as blind as a bat! After they broke up, his heart was broken. You are my sunshine. Life is a rollercoaster. A blanket of snow covered the ground. Personification Personification: a kind of metaphor in

which a non-human thing or quality is talked about as if it were human or given human traits Examples: The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky. The wind howled with objection. As winter approached, I could hear the islands calling my name.

Imagery Imagery: collection of pictures or likenesses made with words that appeal to the five senses (sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) which help the reader to form a mental picture. Paints a picture in your mind. Example: As I rounded the corner,

a full moon in a black sky watched down upon me. I could only hear the chirp of the crickets echoing in the distance. A warm breeze tickled my nose with the smell of freshly mowed grass Allusion Allusion: A reference to a statement, a person, a place, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports,

science or pop culture Examples: I was surprised Bradys nose didnt start growing like Pinocchio's! He was a real Romeo with the ladies. Symbol Symbol: An ordinary object, event person, or object on which extraordinary meaning has been attached.

A symbol has two meanings: its actual representation and its symbolic one. Examples: Allegory Allegory: is a narrative in which the characters and the setting stand for abstract ideas or moral qualities. Often, events,

characters, setting, and details have symbolic meaning Example: Nursery Rhyme, Humpty Dumpty and Animal Farm by George Orwell Subject vs. Theme The subject is what the story is about. The story The Three Little Pigs is about planning ahead.

Theme is what the subject means. The theme of The Three Little Pigs is that those who dont plan ahead may suffer the consequences. Theme is the unifying or reoccurring idea or motif in a piece of literature Usually, the theme reveals some type of truth about human behavior. Theme = the message of the story; what the author wants the reader to know after reading the story Theme is not a summary or a moral,

but a statement of what the author is trying to say. Theme Themes are not normally directly stated. To find the theme, think about. . . protagonists actions protagonists motivation a lesson the protagonist learns the protagonists relationship to the climax Some stories may contain more than one theme.

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