Laboratory Safety

Laboratory Safety

Laboratory Safety Standard Bureau of Workers Comp PA Training for Health & Safety (PATHS) 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories PPT-066-01 1 Topics

o o o o o Applicability Permissible exposure limits Employee exposure determination Chemical hygiene plan general Employee information and training PPT-066-01

2 Topics o o o o o Medical consultation and medical examination Hazard identification Use of respirators Recordkeeping

Appendices PPT-066-01 3 Standard Applies To All employers engaged in lab use of hazardous chemicals where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis. It supersedes, for labs, requirements of all other OSHA health standards in 29 CFR 1910, subpart Z, except for any OSHA health standard, only the

requirement to limit employee exposure to specific PEL shall apply for labs, unless that particular standard states otherwise or unless conditions of paragraph (a) (2) (iii) apply. PPT-066-01 4 Paragraph (a) (2) (iii) Where action level (or in absence of action level, the PEL) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated substance with

exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements, paragraphs(d)* and (g) (1)(ii)* of this section shall apply. PPT-066-01 5 Standard Does Not Apply To Uses of hazardous

chemicals not meeting the definition of lab use. In such cases employer shall comply with relevant standard in 29 CR 1910, Subpart Z, even if such use occurs in a lab. PPT-066-01 6 Standard Does NOT Apply To Lab uses of hazardous

chemicals which provide no potential for employee exposure. Examples: o Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media (Dip-and-Read tests); o Commercially prepared kits (pregnancy tests). PPT-066-01 7

Hazardous Chemical Defined A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in an exposed employee The term Health Hazard includes: o Carcinogens; o Toxic or highly toxic agents; o Reproductive toxins; PPT-066-01 8 Hazardous Chemicals

Health Hazards: Irritants; Corrosives; Sensitizers; Hepatotoxins (injure the liver); Nephrotoxins (poison the kidneys); Neurotoxins (act on nervous

system); Agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, (blood); Agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes. PPT-066-01 9 Select Carcinogen Any substance meeting one of the following criteria: 1. Is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or

2. Listed under category known to be carcinogens in National Toxicology Program (NTP); 3. Listed under Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC); PPT-066-01 10 Select Carcinogen 4. Listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under category reasonably anticipated to be

carcinogens by NTP and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: o After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10mg/m3; o After repeated skin application of less than 300 (mg/kg of body weight) per week; or o After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. PPT-066-01 11

Physical Hazard A chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a: o o o o Combustible Liquid;

Compressed Gas; Explosive; Flammable Aerosol, Flammable Gas, Flammable Liquid, flammable Solid, flammable. PPT-066-01 12 Physical Hazard Also included as a physical hazard would be: o

o o o o Organic peroxide; Oxidizer; Pyrophoric; Unstable (reactive), or Water-reactive PPT-066-01 13

Hazardous Chemical Defined Additionally: 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard, Appendices A & B provide guidance in defining scope of health hazards; and In determining whether a chemical is to be considered hazardous for purposes of this standard. PPT-066-01 14

Permissible Exposure Limits Also known as PELs For lab use of OSHA regulated substances, the employer shall assure lab employees exposure to such substances do not exceed the PELs specified in 29 CFR 1910, subpart Z PPT-066-01

15 Employee Exposure Determined by Initial Monitoring Employer shall measure employees exposure to any substance regulated which requires monitoring if reason to believe exposure levels for substance routinely exceed the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the PEL). PPT-066-01 16

Periodic Monitoring If initial monitoring discloses employee exposure over action level of PEL, employer shall immediately comply with exposure monitoring provisions of relevant standard Termination of Monitoring: Monitoring may be terminated in accordance with relevant standard PPT-066-01 17

Employee Monitoring Employee Notification: Employer shall, within 15 days after receipt of monitoring results, notify employee in writing individually or by posting results. PPT-066-01 18 Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) General Where hazardous chemicals, as defined, are used in the workplace,

employer shall develop a written Chemical Hygiene Plan Capable of protecting employees from health hazards from the lab chemicals And keeping exposures below limits specified in paragraph (c) this section PPT-066-01 19 Chemical Hygiene Plan Plan shall be readily available to employees, their representatives, and upon request to

the Assistant Secretary. Plan shall indicate specific measures to protect lab Employees. Employer shall annually review Plan and update as needed. PPT-066-01 20 Plan Contents o Standard Operating Procedures o Criteria used to determine and implement

control measures to reduce exposures PPT-066-01 21 Plan Contents o Requirement that fume hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly o Provisions for employee information and training

PPT-066-01 22 Plan Contents o Circumstances under which a particular lab operation, procedure or activity shall require prior approval from employer or designee before implementation. o Provisions for medical consultation and exams

PPT-066-01 23 Plan Contents o Designation of personnel responsible for Plan implementation including: o

Assignment of Chemical Hygiene Officer and, if appropriate; o Establishment of Chemical Hygiene Committee. PPT-066-01 24

Plan Contents o Provisions for additional employee protection for work with particularly hazardous substances. These include: - Select carcinogens - Reproductive toxins and - Substances with a high degree of acute toxicity PPT-066-01 25 Plan Contents

o Considerations shall be given the following provisions which shall be included where appropriate: o Establishment of a designated area i.e.: Area which may be used for work with select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances with a high degree of acute toxicity. This may be the entire lab, an area of a lab or a device such as a lab hood.

PPT-066-01 26 Plan Contents o Use of containment devices, fume hoods or glove boxes; o Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste; and o Decontamination procedures. PPT-066-01 27

Employee Information/Training Employer shall provide employees with information and training ensuring theyre apprised of chemical hazards in their work area. It should be o Provided at initial assignment to a work area where such chemicals are present, and o Prior to assignments involving new exposure situations, o Frequency of refresher information and training determined by employer PPT-066-01

28 Information to Employees Employees shall be informed of: o Contents of this standard and its appendices; o Location and availability of employers Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP); o PELs for OSHA regulated substances or recommended exposure limits (RELs) for other hazardous chemicals where there is no applicable OSHA standard. PPT-066-01 29

Information to Employees o Signs and symptoms of exposure to hazardous lab chemicals o Location/availability of known reference material on hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal of hazardous chemicals in the lab. o This includes but is not limited to SDSs provided by chemical supplier. PPT-066-01 30

Employee Training Employee training shall include: o Methods/observations that can be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical (e.g. such as monitoring, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor). o Physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area. PPT-066-01 31

Employee Training o Measures employees can take to protect themselves o o from these hazards including: Specific procedures implemented to reduce exposures Appropriate work practices Emergency procedures, and Personal protective equipment (PPE);

Employees shall be trained on applicable details of written Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). PPT-066-01 32 Examples of Lab Hazards Improper Lecture Bottle Storage PPT-066-01 33

Examples of Lab Hazards Collapse of Storage PPT-066-01 34 Examples of Lab Hazards Lack of PPE PPT-066-01 35

Examples of Lab Hazards Condition of Cylinders PPT-066-01 36 Examples of Lab Hazards Cylinder Explosions PPT-066-01 37

Examples of Lab Hazards Fume Hood Fires PPT-066-01 38 Examples of Lab Hazards Lab Explosions PPT-066-01 39

Examples of Lab Hazards Storage Concerns PPT-066-01 40 Examples of Lab Hazards Ensure Proper Signage PPT-066-01 41

Medical Consultation/Exams Employer shall provide employees working with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive medical attention, including any follow-up exams physician determines necessary under the following circumstances: 1. Whenever employee develops signs or symptoms associated with a hazardous chemical to which employee may have been exposed in the lab PPT-066-01 42

Medical Consultation/Exams 2. Where exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level routinely above action level or in its absence above the PEL for an OSHA regulated substance for which there are exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements 3. Whenever an occurrence results in the work area where there is a likelihood of a hazardous exposure due to: o Spill o Leak o Explosion or other occurrence PPT-066-01

43 Medical Consultation/Exams o All exams and consultations shall be performed by, or under direct supervision of, a licensed physician. o Shall be provided to employee without cost or loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

PPT-066-01 44 Medical Consultation/Exam o Employer shall provide following information to physician: Identity of hazardous chemical(s) to which employee may have been exposed;

A description of conditions under which exposure occurred including quantitative exposure date, if available; and A description of signs and symptoms of exposure that employee is experiencing, if any PPT-066-01 45

Physicians Opinion o Provided to employer in writing including: o Recommendation for further medical follow-up; o Results of medical exam and any associated tests; o Any medical condition revealed in course of exam which might put employee at risk; o Statement that employee has been informed of findings (Written opinion shall not reveal specific findings unrelated to occupational exposure) PPT-066-01

46 Hazard Identification Labels and Safety Data Sheets Employers shall: Ensure labels on incoming containers are not removed or defaced; Maintain any SDSs received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals and ensure they are readily accessible to lab employees. PPT-066-01

47 Chemical Developed for Lab If composition produced for labs use is known: 1. Determine if it is a hazardous chemical as defined by standard; 2. If so, provide employees with appropriate training per this standard (e); 3. If composition is not known, assume it is hazardous and train per (f) of this standard. PPT-066-01 48

Chemical Developed for Others If chemical is produced for another user outside the lab, employer shall: Comply with Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) including preparation of SDS and labeling. PPT-066-01 49 Respirators Where respirators are necessary to maintain

exposure below PELs, employer shall provide, at no cost to employee, the proper respiratory equipment. Respirators shall be selected and used per 29 CR 1910.134. PPT-066-01 50 Recordkeeping Employer shall Establish and maintain, for each employee, 1. An accurate record of any measurements

to monitor employee exposures, and taken 2. Any medical consultation and examinations including tests or written opinions required by this standard, 3. Assurance that such records are kept, transferred, and made available per 29 CFR 1910.1020. PPT-066-01 51

References A full list of references can be found in 1910.1450 Appendix B to assist in the construction of a Chemical Hygiene Plan Also the following serve as reference materials: National Research Council, Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1981 NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, NIOSH Pub. No. 85-114, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (latest edition). PPT-066-01 52

Contact Information Health & Safety Training Specialists 1171 South Cameron Street, Room 324 Harrisburg, PA 17104-2501 (717) 772-1635 [email protected] Like us on Facebook! PPT-066-01 53 Questions

PPT-066-01 54

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