# Introduction to Valuation: The Time Value of Money 4.1 Chapter 12a McGraw-Hill/Irwin Introduction to Valuation: The Time Value of Money 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.2 Basic Definitions Present

Value earlier money on a time line Future Value later money on a time line Interest rate exchange rate between earlier money and later money Discount rate Cost of capital Opportunity cost of capital Required return McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.3 Future Values: General Formula FV

= PV(1 + r)t FV = future value PV = present value r = period interest rate, expressed as a decimal T = number of periods Future value interest factor = (1 + r)t McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.4 Future Values

Suppose you invest \$1000 for one year at 5% per year. What is the future value in one year? Suppose you leave the money in for another year. How much will you have two years from now? McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.5 Effects of Compounding Simple

interest Compound interest Consider the previous example FV with simple interest = 1000 + 50 + 50 = 1100 FV with compound interest = 1102.50 The extra 2.50 comes from the interest of .05(50) = 2.50 earned on the first interest payment McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.6 Future Value as a General Growth Formula

Suppose your company expects to increase unit sales of widgets by 15% per year for the next 5 years. If you currently sell 3 million widgets in one year, how many widgets do you expect to sell in 5 years? McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.7 Quick Quiz Part 1 What is the difference between simple interest and compound interest?

Suppose you have \$500 to invest and you believe that you can earn 8% per year over the next 15 years. How much would you have at the end of 15 years using compound interest? How much would you have using simple interest? McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.8 Present Values How much do I have to invest today to have some amount in the future?

FV = PV(1 + r)t Rearrange to solve for PV = FV / (1 + r)t When we talk about discounting, we mean finding the present value of some future amount. When we talk about the value of something, we are talking about the present value unless we specifically indicate that we want the future value. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved Present Value One Period Example 4.9

Suppose you need \$10,000 in one year for the down payment on a new car. If you can earn 7% annually, how much do you need to invest today? McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved 4.10 Present Values Example 2 You want to begin saving for you daughters college education and you estimate that she

will need \$150,000 in 17 years. If you feel confident that you can earn 8% per year, how much do you need to invest today? McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved Present Value Important Relationship I 4.11 For a given interest rate the longer the time period, the lower the present value What

is the present value of \$500 to be received in 5 years? 10 years? The discount rate is 10% 5 years: PV = 310.46 10 years: PV = 192.77 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved Present Value Important Relationship II 4.12 For a given time period the higher the interest rate, the smaller the present value What

is the present value of \$500 received in 5 years if the interest rate is 10%? 15%? Rate = 10%: PV = 310.46 Rate = 15%; PV = 248.58 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies All Rights Reserved