Introduction to Biology II - University of Houston-Downtown

Introduction to Biology II - University of Houston-Downtown

Introduction to Biology II Biology 1312 Spring 2007 Dr. Brad Hoge Evolution Historical Perspective

Plato Platos Ideal Aristotle Scala naturae Future Causes The Chain of Being

The Long Road to Recovery Linnaeus taxonomy Hutton gradualism Lamarck evolution

Malthus populations Cuvier extinction Lyell uniformitarianism

Darwin Voyage of the Beagle Origin of Species Wallace Natural Selection Mendel

Natural Selection and Adaptation Species Fecundity Stable Populations

Environmental Resources are Limited Struggle for Survival

Variation within Populations Differential Survivability

Successful Traits Accumulate Patterns of Evolution Homology Vestigial Traits Biogeography The Fossil Record

Modern Synthesis Theodosius Dobzhansky Sewell Wright Watson and Crick Ernst Mayr Population Genetics Population Gene Pool

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 Microevolution Natural Selection Genetic Drift Bottleneck Effect Founder Effect Mutation

Variation Variation Within Populations Polymorphism Gene diversity Nucleotide diversity Variation Between

Populations Geographic variation Sexual recombination Fitness Optima Relative Fitness Selection Directional selection

Diversifying selection Stabilizing selection Level of Selection Gene selection Species selection Population selection Sexual Selection

Sexual dimorphism Mate Choice Competition The Ant and the Peacock Perfection Evolution is limited by history Adaptations is limited by survivability There are no future causes

Chance happens Not all change is good Macroevolution Biological Species Concept

Ecological Species Concept Pluralistic Species Concept

Morphological Species Concept Genealogical Species Concept Genetic Isolation Anagenesis

Cladogenesis Prezygotic Isolation Habitat isolation Behavioral isolation Temporal isolation Mechanical isolation Gametic isolation

Postzygotic Isolation Reduced hybrid viability Reduced hybrid fertility Hybrid breakdown Speciation Allopatric Speciation Sympatic Speciation

Examples of Speciation Ring Species Adaptive Radiation on Island Chains Rates of Speciation Gradualism Catastrophism

Punctuated Equilibrium The Role of Development Allometric Growth Heterochrony Paedomorphosis Homeotic Genes Rates of Mutation

Genetic Clocks Mitochondrial DNA

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