Information Technology Project Management - Third Edition
Information Technology Project Management Third Edition By Jack T. Marchewka Northern Illinois University Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. all rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher 1 assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. The Human Side of Project Management Chapter 4 2 PMBOK Area Project Human Resources Management Human Resources Planning
Acquiring Project Team Putting together a project team with the right mix of skills and experiences Developing Project Team Creating a staff management plan that identifies project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships The technical, organizational, and interpersonal skills of team members may need to be augmented through training Also includes creating the team environment Managing the Project Team
The challenge of managing local and/or geographically dispersed project team members 3 The Formal Organization Formal groupings & specializations Documented in an organizational chart to clarify and portray the lines of authority, communication, reporting relationships and responsibilities of individuals and groups within the organization Indicates how a project will interface with the parent organization Determines how resources will be allocated, who has authority over those resources and who is really in charge of the project
Published Lines of Authority Responsibilities Reporting Relationships Communication 4 Organization and Project Planning Organizational Structure Figure 4.1 5 The Functional Organization Figure 4.2 6
The Functional Organization Advantages Increased Flexibility Breadth & Depth of Knowledge & Experience Less Duplication Disadvantages
Determining Authority & Responsibility when project crosses functional areas Poor Response Time multiple layers of management Poor Integration functional areas isolate themselves 7 The Project Organization 8 The Project-Based Organization Advantages
Clear Authority & Responsibility Improved Communication High Level of Integration better communication across the org Disadvantages Project Isolation from other projects
Duplication of Effort Projectitis team becomes to attached to project and may not want to kill it 9 The Matrix Organization Figure 4.4 10 The Matrix Organization Hybrid organizations Balanced matrix project manager defines
activities, functional manager carries them out Functional matrix PM coordinates project activities, FM completes activities related to their area Project matrix PM has most of the authority and responsibility for defining and completing the project activities while the FMs provide guidance and resources 11 The Matrix Organization Advantages High Level of Integration Improved Communication Increased Project
Focus Disadvantages Potential for conflict Unity of Command can be violated, more than one boss Poor Response Time 12 Which Works Best A study of 1,600+ project management professional by
Larson and Gobeli concluded Both project managers and functional managers have a strong preference for the project or project matrix organization Functional and functional matrix were seen as the least effective Balanced matrix was seen as only marginally effective Functional organization may work best when only a few internal projects are being worked on or for a project undertaken within one specific area of the organization An organization with a large number of external projects would find project organization a better structure
Projects that require a cross-functional approach or have limited staff would be better suited to a matrix organization 13 The Formal Organization The formal organization is the published structure that defines the official lines of authority, responsibilities and reporting relationships While the formal organizational structure tells us how individuals or groups within an organization should relate to one another, it does not tell us how they actually relate. 14 The Informal Organization
Bypasses formal lines of communication & authority Communication can be much faster than in a formal organization Power is determined by how well one is connected in the informal network i.e., the grapevine Can be more complex than the formal organization because relationships are established from positive and negative relationships over time 15 Stakeholders Individuals, groups, or even organizations that have a stake or claim in the projects (successful
or unsuccessful) outcome 16 Stakeholder Analysis Process Develop a list of stakeholders who have an interest in the successful or unsuccessful outcome of the project Identify the stakeholders interest in the project 1. 2. 3. +1 for positive interest 0 for neutral -1 for negative interest Determine the degree of influence each stakeholder has on a scale of 0 (no
influence) to 10 (can terminate the project) 17 Stakeholder Analysis 4. 5. 6. 7. Assessing potential conflict among the stakeholders i.e., one stakeholder may want to increase system functionality which will increase the budget and time while other stakeholders may want to limit the budget Define a role for each stakeholder e.g., champion, consultant, decision maker, ally, rival, foe, etc. Identify an objective for each stakeholder e.g., provide resources, guidance, expertise, acceptance, approval, etc. Identify a strategy for each stakeholder
18 Stakeholder Interest Influence Hirem N. Firem +1 5 Dee Manitger +1 Project Team I. Will Sellit Potential Conflicts Role
Objective Strategy Competition for resources with other functional managers Project Sponsor and Champion Provide resources, approvals, and public support for the project To maintain open communicati on so that political landmines
can be avoided 3 Resources not made available as promised by functional managers Project Manager Lead and manage the project so that it achieves its MOV Work closely with project stakeholders and project team +1
2 This project will change a number business processes. Affected users may resist change by withholding information Steve Turner Network Administrator Shedelle Bivits Systems Analyst Corean Jenkins Programmer/DB A Myra Dickens Inventory Analyst Provide expertise to
complete the project work Support project team with adequate resources while minimizing distractions -1 4 As the marketing manager, Sellit is not pleased that this project was chosen over his proposed project. May withhold promised resources Foe
Build and maintain best possible relationshi p to minimize Maintain open communicati on. Use project 19 sponsors influence as The Project Team The Roles of the Project Manager
Managerial role planning, organizing, controlling, administrating Leadership role build and nurture the relationship among stakeholders, motivate the team, focus everyone on same goal Attributes of a successful project manager ability ability ability ability to to to to communicate with people deal with people
create and sustain relationships organize 20 Team Leader (Project Manager) Acts To: Clarify purpose & goals Build commitment & self confidence Strengthen teams collective skills Remove external obstacles Create opportunities for others Creates the Project Environment
Work space Team culture and values Project administration Ethical Conduct 21 Team Selection The PM must find the right mix of people with both technical and nontechnical skills Some of the skills to look for Technology skills
Business/organization skills domain/industry knowledge Interpersonal skills Timing of hiring can impact the success of a project 22 The Wisdom of Teams Jon R. Katzenbach Douglas K. Smith Provides insights to understanding the language and discipline of teams Work Groups Pseudo Teams Potential Teams Real Teams
High Performance Teams 23 Work Groups Single leader in control making most of the decisions, delegates to subordinates and monitors the teams progress Members interact to share information, best practices, or ideas No shared performance goals (individual performance) No joint work-products No mutual accountability Viable in many situations
e.g., study group 24 Teams Bring complementary skills & experience Jointly defined clear goals & approaches improve communication Improve decision-making Have more fun 25 Real Teams Small number of people (2 -12) Complementary skills
Committed to a common purpose and performance goals People understand how their joint work impacts the organization Common approach how to work together technical, interpersonal, decision making, etc. Open communication and trust leads to sharing of ideas and skills so team members can learn from one another Hold themselves mutually accountable, not individual accountability 26
Example of a Project Team Charter Figure 4.10 27 A Learning Cycle Approach to Project Management An Agile Project Management Approach 28 Learning Cycles Derived from educator/ philosopher John Dewey (1938) Used to describe how people learn (Kolb, 1984; Honey &
Mumford, 1994) Can be applied to project teams (Jeris, 1997; Redding, 2000). 29 Traditional Teams Accept background information at facevalue Approach projects in logical, linear fashion Provide run-of-the-mill solutions Solutions remain within the original frame or how the problem was originally presented to them 30 Radical Teams
Do not accept issues & tasks at their face value The way the problem is defined may very well be the problem Unquestioned assumptions are surfaced & challenged Only by digging below the surface can we get to the root so that a meaningful solution can emerge 31 A Learning Cycle Figure 4.6 32 Example of a Team Learning Record What we know (Facts) What we think we know
(Assumptions) What we dont know (Questions to be Answered) Company has too much inventory on hand It may be an efficiency problem Why are inventory levels so high? Cost of maintaining current inventory is becoming prohibitive Management believes an new information system will improve efficiency and therefore lower inventory levels
What are the current levels of inventory? Inventory turnover needs to be increased Figure 4.7 What is the desired level of inventory? 33 An Example of an Action Plan for Team Learning Who? Shedelle and Steve Does What? By When? Interview sales team to understand past, current, and future trends for the
companys product. Tuesday Provide a detailed count of the current physical inventory on hand. Thursday Corean Research potential inventory management system commercial packages Thursday Steve Research average inventory levels for the industry Wednesday
Myra Figure 4.8 34 Team Learning Cycles over the Project Life Cycle Each cycle provides the opportunity to challenge framing assumptions, create new understanding & find radical solutions Figure 4.9 35
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