India

India

Map of all the languages of India What can we infer about Indian civilization? Compared to Chinese civilizations? Pre-History

Indian history is OLD!! Artifacts dating back to as much as 500,000 years have been found Bhimetka (Madhya Pradesh) Rock shelters up to 15,000 year old paintings & 290,000 year old petroglyphs

Indus & Sarasvati Civilizations 2000 BCE One of the 4 first/oldest civilizations of the first Complex & advance cities Indus Valley Mohenjo Daro ruins

Indoor plumbing Left a lot of ruins/artifacts Culture is still a mystery - writing has not been deciphered Artist recreation of Sarasvati Civilization

Vedic Period 1000 BCE Ayran Migration Vedas & Mahabharata is composed Hinduism takes deep roots Caste system is established Rise of Jainism

and Buddhism 600 BCE Gautama Buddha (founder of Buddhism) Mahavira (Jainist Tirthankara) The Magadha Kingdom play a huge role in development o Jainism & Buddhism

Mauryan Period 400 BCE Alexander the Great invades parts of India Chandra Gupta Maurya establishes the Mauryan Empire Ashoka spreads Buddhism, codify law

Khajuraho Temples are built Hoysala Dynastay Gupta Empire Pallavas Dynasty Mohammed Ghazni loots the riches & wealth of India Golden Age of

Indian Art & Science Muslim Invasion 1200 AD Marco Polo visits India Khilji Dynasty Vijayanagar Empire First voyage of Vasco de

Gama to Gao Bhakthi Movement (religious Hindu movement) Southern Dynasties Mughal Empire 1500 AD Akbar the Great East India Company formed (British

trading co.) Taj Mahal is built Hyder Ali & Tipu Sultan (in the South) The British Raj 1800 AD British imperialism Prohibition of Sati

First Indian War of Independence Indian National Congress is formed Politically late 18th century Mughal Empire British East India Company

Political/Military-late 18th century Mughal Empire is decentralized/weak Divided into separate principalities (Nawabs) Nawabs cooperate w/Europeans British East Indian Company control of India grows Battle of Plassey-French driven out of Bengal Capitalize divisions w/in Mughal empire Captures Delhi in 1857 (capital of Mughal Empire)

Economically late 18th century Economics & Technology Trade with Europeans (including French) Cotton textiles major export Textile weavers are known

throughout the world Non-industrialized No Railroads Cultural/Social Late 18th century Social mixing b/n British and Indians nawabs Hindu caste system Religion-Hindu majority/Muslim minority Portuguese Christian presence in Goa and South India

Growing Christian evangelism by British Some traditions Sati infanticide Sepoy Rebellion 1857 (major Turning Point) Sepoy = Indian soldiers

hired to work for the British East Indian Company 300,000 Sepoy compared to 50,000 British soldiers Many reasons for rebellion Political/Military-After India become crown colony

Indian Princes kept in power but as figureheads More British troops/Sepoy army carefully watched British laws grant Indians equal protection under the laws Freedom to practice religion of choice Few Indians in upper levels of Indian Civil Service

Less than 100,000 British governing over 250 million Indians Economics & Technology-After Opium becomes major export to China (over 40% of exports) Railroads constructed (5th largest in the world)

Irrigated land is expanded Coal industry established Indian Opium Export Free trade decimates traditional weavers Over a million Indians emigrate to other parts of BE as indentured servants Cotton industry dominated by British imports

Economics & Technology-After Widespread famine across India Happened multiple times Not because there was a lack of food... Cultural/Social After Cultural

Social Hinduism continues Limited conversion (only 2% Christian) Sati & infanticide outlawed English is introduced British model of educational

(over 20, 000 secondary schools) Famine continues (1877 & 1900) British give preference to Brahmins reinforcing caste system Natives are deliberately kept out of social institutions More segregation b/n British and

Indians British Imperialism in India = British Raj Indian National Congress & Muslim Leagues Rowlatt Acts Amritsar Massacre Gandhi & civil disobedience Salt March

Government of India Act Hindu-Muslim tension/conflict? Why?? Partition Kashmir

Indian-Pakistani relations today? Sikh Nationalism Pakista n Civil War

Sri Lanka

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