IEEE talk 2001

IEEE talk 2001

Physics Results with RICH Counters Outline: Introduction CP Violation in the B Sector The Search for Exotic Baryons Progress in Neutrino Physics Summary 5th International Workshop on Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters Blair Ratcliff Stanford Linear Accelerator Center RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Introduction-I RICH Conference Tradition Review Physics Impact of RICH Technique A cause for celebration: Use of RICH has become common. Physics needing high quality PID Flavor Physics and CP violation studies Hadron Spectroscopy and the search for exotics

e/separation in Heavy Ion Physics Physics on a massive scale for cosmic ray and neutrino studies. Technical Developments Familiarity: Now a proven technique RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Introduction-II Physics Topic Examples: Exciting Issues (2004) Some Experiments with RICH; Active/ Future: (and without RICH) Heavy Flavor Physics Confronting the Standard Model: Precision Measurements of CP Violation in B Sector;

Are there experimental hints of New Physics? BaBar(SLAC), BELLE(KEK), CLEOIII(Cornell), CKM, SELEX, BTeV (Fermilab) LHCb (CERN); Super BFactory (SLAC/KEK?) Hadron Structure Do Pentaquarks exist? Do other exotic hadrons exist? What is quark content of new states? E.g., DsJ[2317]; DsJ[2460]; DsJ[2632](SELEX); X(3872) Many of the Heavy Flavor Experiments above; HERMES(DESY); COMPASS(CERN); SELEX(Fermilab) Neutrino Physics

First Confirmed Physics Beyond SM Are neutrinos Dirac or Majorana? What is the mass hierachy? Neutrino Astrophysics Super Kamiokande; SNO(Sudbury); Lake Baikal; Ice Cube(South Pole); Antares(Mediterranean); NESTOR (Greece) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Introduction-III Physics Topic Examples: Exciting Issues (2004) Quark Matter at High Density (Heavy Ions) Discovery of Quark-Gluon HADES(GSI); Plasma PHENIX(RHIC);STAR(RHIC) ALICE

(CERN) High Energy Frontier Discovery! Higgs?; Supersymmetry? CDF/D0(Fermilab); LHC/ILC Astro-particle physics Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays; Very High Energy Gamma Rays; Discussed at this conference; AMS-02(Space); Auger (Argentina); HESS (Namibia); Puebla; TUNKA (Siberia); Mexico/Chalcataya; Magic (la Palma) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004

Some Experiments with RICH; Active/ Future: (and without RICH) Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Introduction-IV Apology: Extremely Broad Physics Rangeway too many topics to even begin to cover them all. FortunatelySeveral physics topics have been addressed here both in review talks and more specific contributed detector/experiment talks. Astroparticle/Neutrino Physics (Greg Hallewell + the Astroparticle Contributed session) Heavy Ion Physics (Itzhak Tserruya) Hadron Spectroscopy (see especially the Contributed talks in the session on RICH at fixed target experiments ) Many thanks to the ICEHP04 speakers. Please see their wonderful talks for more details. Special thanks as well to J. Richman, D. MacFarlane, and M. Giorgi Will concentrate on three areas that have had especially exciting results in the last two years.even so only a few specific topics from these areas can be covered: B Flavor Physics (The Experimental Status of CP Violation) The search for unusual hadrons and exotics (Do Pentaquarks exist?) A brief update on Neutrino Physics RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004

Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Experimental Status of CPV in the B Sector Tremendous progress since first observation of CPV in 2001 by BaBar and Belle. Sin 2 is only the beginning: CP violation in B decays is not simply a single discovery, but a broad physics program! First precise test of CKM picture. Now looking for small corrections rather than alternatives. The search for new physics Serious attack on all angles and sides of the unitary triangle. New modes of CP violation: Discovery of direct CPV in B decays (2004). Regarding the role of RICH: High quality PID essential both for tagging and final state separation. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Belle Detector SC solenoid 1.5T Aerogel Cherenkov cnt. n=1.015~1.030

CsI(Tl) 16X0 3.5GeV e + TOF counter SVD1 8GeV e SVD2 Tracking + dE/dx small cell + He/C2H5 - +113/fb Si vtx. det. 3 lyr. DSSD SVD2 /KL detection 14/15 lyr. RPC+Fe 140/fb SVD1

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Particle Identification at Belle p/K/ separation is based on Likelihood ratio: L(K) LR(K)= L(K)+L() RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC BaBar Detector Instrumented Flux Return 1.5 T Solenoid DIRC Radiators Drift Chamber e+ (3.1 GeV)

e (9.0 GeV) DIRC Standoff Box and Magnetic Shielding Silicon Vertex Detector RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 DIRC thickness: 8 cm radial incl. supports 19% radiation length at normal incidence DIRC radiators cover: 94% azimuth, 83% c.m. polar angle Electromagnetic Calorimeter Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Hadronic PID at BaBar Npe and resolution per track (di-muons) vs. polar angle: Fully corrected efficiency/mis-id matrix for a standard selector. Bands represent uncertainties

from control samples. Mis-id rates can be tuned down to ~1% over most of momentum space. (c,) = 2.4 mrad RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC B Factory Luminosities-Summer 2004 Total 244(BaBar) + 286(Belle) fb-1 = 0.530 ab-1!! Delivered Recorded Continuum 300 250 200 150 100 50 6/2/03 1/21/02

9/11/00 5/3/99 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC 10/11/04 0 CP Violation-A Brief Overview CP violation can be observed by comparing decay rates of particles and antiparticles ( a f ) (a f ) CP violation The difference in decay rates arises from a different interference term for the matter vs. antimatter process. Analogy to double-slit experiment: Classical double-slit experiment: Relative phase variation due to different source 1 path lengths: interference pattern in space

A A2 B system: extraordinary laboratory for quantum interference experiments: many final states, multiple paths. A1 A1 A2 A2 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Conditions for CP violation A A1 A2 Two amplitudes, A1 and A2, with a relative CPviolating phase (2) only

A2 2 A1 A1 A2 A A1 A2 A A1 A2 A2 2 2 A1 A1 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 2 A2 No CP violation: the magnitudes of A and A are the same! Two amplitudes, A1

and A2, with both a relative CP-violating phase and CPconserving phase (2). Now have CP violation! Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Looking for the perfect way to study CP violation Type of CP violation Sources of interfering amplitudes Source of CP conserving phase Direct 2 or more decay amplitudes strong, final-state interactions; value is usually not known

Time independent can measure in both neutral (B0/B0) and charged (B+/B-) particle decays. Tagging not required. Mixing: : group of amps with real intermediate states M: group of amps with virtual intermediate states mixing phase: between real and virtual amplitudes Dependence on theory. Very small in B system due to tiny . direct decay after no

net mixing and decay after mixing phase in mixing: exactly known! Interference pattern in time due to timedependence of mixing amplitude. Particleantiparticle oscillations. First CPV mechanism seen (in Kaon decay) Time Dependent interference between mixing & decays Remarks In the SM, the CKM matrix is the only source of CP violating phases . RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004

Blair Ratcliff, SLAC CKM and unitarity conditions qi u,c,t W Vij qj d , s , b Unitarity Relations 2 VudVub 2 2 i e VcdVcb 0, 0

3 Vus Vcs Vts Vub Vcb Vtb + phases Apex at , (b u ) Vud V Vcd V td VtdVtb 2 2 i

(1 ) e VcdVcb B 0 - B 0 mixing 1 B and ( b c ) 1, 0 argVtd ; argVub* ; RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC First Observation of Direct CPV in B decays (summer 2004) B 0 K

AK=-0.1010.0250.005 3.9 4.2 B Average:AK=-0.1140.020 (~5.7 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Compilation of other Direct CP searches K RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Measuring time-dependent CP asymmetries Typical Tagging performance (BaBar): Q = 30.5% z

(4S ) 0.56 e - K B tag 4S Tag Tag vertex vertex reconstruction reconstruction e z 1 t c B

rec z t is a signed quantity 1 Flavor Flavor Tagging Tagging ps ~ 170m 1.6 ps (B) ~ 250 m Start the clock J / K S0 Exclusive Exclusive BB meson meson and

and vertex vertex reconstruction reconstruction The asymmetric beam energies of the B-Factories allow the measurement of quantities that depend on decay time. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Calculating the CP Asymmetry General Form RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC TheGolden modes: the magic of having just one direct decay amplitude If CP violation is due to interference between mixing and one direct decay amp: Pure sin(m t) time dependence No dependence of asymmetry on hadronic physics

For the modes BJ/ KS (J/ KL) AJ / K 0 S ,L t J / K RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 0 S ,L sin 2 sin m t Blair Ratcliff, SLAC sin2 results from charmonium modes (cc ) K S0 (CP odd) modes B BAAB BAR AR 2004 2004 B

Belle elle 2003 2003 bkg sin 2 0.722 0.040 0.023 (cc ) K S0 + sin 2 0.728 0.056 0.023 A / A 0.950 0.031 0.013 (cc ) K L0 A / A 1.007 0.041 0.033 Limit on 205 fb 1 on peak or 227 M BB pairs direct CPV 7730 CP events (tagged signal) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 140 fb 1 on peak or 152M BB pairs 4347 CP events (tagged signal) Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Results on sin2 from ccs, dcc modes RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC sin2, cos2 and CKM constraints B

BAAB BAR AR cos2 < 0 cos2 > 0 sin 2 WA 0.726 0.037( stat sys ) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 cos2 < 0 ruled out at 87% CL by s- and p-wave interference in angular analysis of B J/K*0 (KS0) CKM fit to indirect constraints overlaid with sin2WA measurement Blair Ratcliff, SLAC A better approach to measuring sin2? B decays Extraction of similar to , but with advantage of smaller Penguin pollution: | A00 | | A00 | , much smaller: eff smaller 0 |A | |A | Potentially could be mixed CP,

but is observed to be almost pure CP 1 B BAAB BAR AR Moriond QCD04 B 0 (122M BB pairs) Signal: 314 34 events flong 1.00 0.02 Slong 0.19 0.33 0.11 Clong 0.23 0.24 0.14 hep -ex / 0404029 to PRL (89M BB pairs) Slong 0.42 0.42 0.14 Clong 0.17 0.27 0.14 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Results for sin2eff from B decays BABAR: Updated for ICHEP04 0 B (227M pairs)

B BAAB BAR AR S 0.30 0.17 0.03 C 0.09 0.15 0.04 Belle: PRL 93 (2004) 021601 S 1.00 0.21 0.07 C 0.58 0.15 0.07 152M pairs B 0 (227M pairs) >3 discrepancy between BABAR & Belle RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 A 0 0.01 0.10 0.02 BF 0 (5.8 0.6 0.4) 10 6 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC

Summary of constraints on BABAR BABAR & & Belle Belle combined combined Mirror solutions disfavored From combined , , results: o 12 100 11 CKM indirect constraint fit: 98 16o RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC The Standard Model Still Reigns!

Is there anything beyond? Do and RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 yield the same sin2? Blair Ratcliff, SLAC sin2 and.... and.... In SM interference between B mixing, K mixing and Penguin bsss or bsdd gives the same e as in tree process bccs. However loops can also be sensitive to New Physics! b W u,c , t B0 g d

B 0 u,c , t g d s , ,( KK ) CP s s d W b b s d d d K S0 K

0 S 0 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 B0 d s s , ,( KK )CP s d K S0 New phases from SUSY? b B0 d s d

d d K S0 0 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Results on sin2 from s-penguin modes All new! All new! 2.7 from spenguin to sin2(cc) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 2.4 from spenguin to sin2(cc) Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Averages for sin2 and s-penguin modes 3.6 from spenguin to sin2(cc)

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 No sign of Direct CP in averages Blair Ratcliff, SLAC CPV In B PhysicsSummary Tremendous progress by B Factories since first observation of CPV in 2001. Competetive experiments have been a strong plus. CP violation in B decays is not simply a single discovery, but a broad physics program with many overlapping experimental results! Precise measurement of Sin 2from charmonium modes. 3.6 discrepancy between charmonium and s-penquin modes. New Physics? Serious attack on all angles and sides of the unitary triangle. Quantitative measurement(2004) of ) New mode of CP violation: Discovery of direct CPV in B decays (2004). Outlook The increasing data samples from existing B-factories may very well provide convincing evidence for NP by ~2009! Unraveling full physics impact probably Year BBar Pairs requires ~50-100 times more luminosity Now

>5x108 Motivates New Super-B Factory 2006 ~1x109 And 9 2009 2-4x10 Next Generation Hadronic Experiments RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Next Generation Experiments at Hadron Machines LHCb Layout From 2007 From 2009 Purpose is to collect large samples to over-constrain Unitarity Triangle and search for New Physics. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Next Generation Experiments at B-Factories?

Proposed New Super B Factory Machines at KEK/SLAC with L~1-2x1035 (KEK) ~2010? L~5-7x1035 (PEP) ~2012? RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Exotic Hadron Spectroscopy-I Ordinary Hadrons (qqq or qq ) explain most of experimentally observed hadron spectrum. However, QCD other non-forbidden states expected: Multi-quark states (q 4); e.g., qqqqq; qqqq Glueballs (e.g, gg,ggg) Hybrids (e.g., qqg,qqqg) Long experimental history some evidence for extraordinary states but difficult to interpret: Light scalar mesonstoo many states. Threshold enhancementsare they resonant? RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Exotic Hadron Spectroscopy-II Recent data have sparked renewed interest: Pentaquarks (+(1540); --(1862); c+(3099))

X(3872) DsJ(2317); DsJ(2460); DsJ(2632) Threshold enhancements in pp;p Complicated experimental situation: Varying production channels, energy ranges etc. Range of detection methods, only some with RICH Excellent PID is necessary in some cases and powerful in others but is not available in all experiments Look at one topic today Does the Pentaquark exist? RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Some Early History Many searches from late 60s onwards for s = +1 baryon resonance production (the Zs)in K+N scattering experiments. Nothing observed. Summary on s = 1 baryon resonance searches was dropped from PDG as of 1986 with the following comment: The general prejudice against baryons not made of three quarks

and the lack of any experimental activity in this area make it likely that it will be another 15 years before the issue is decided. PDGs prediction: the pentaquark issue cannot be settled until 1986 + 15 = 2001 So it is past time to find something (or not)! RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Pentaquark Revival The Prediction D. Diakonov, V. Petrov, and M. Polyakov, Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 305. Splitting ~180 MeV A chiral soliton model for an anti-decuplet of 4 quarks plus an anti-quark gives specific estimates for masses and widths. Input The baryons at the corners are exotic. S I3

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 The lowest mass object which they called the Z+ (now called +) is predicted to be: Exotic: S=+1 Low mass: 1530 MeV Narrow width: ~ 15 MeV JP=1/2+ Blair Ratcliff, SLAC First Evidence for the +: LEPS at Spring-8 in n K K n M= 1540105 MeV < 25 MeV at 90% C.L. Bump significant claimed as 4.6 inimum 5 quark content (uudds) Mass and width consistent with chiral soliton model prediction. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC More Evidence for e.g. p nK K d pnK K p nK K S0 CLAS SAPHIR A Plethora of Claims Followed-e.g., CLAS M(nK+) + M(nK ) M 1542 5MeV 21MeV N event 43 Significance :~ 5.8 M 1555 10 MeV

M(nK+ M 1540 4 2 MeV ) 26 MeV 25MeV N event 63 13 N event 41 Significance : 4.8 (fit) Significance :~ 7.8 fit RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 (S / B ) R (1540 ) R* (1520 ) ~ 0.3 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Summary of Positive Claims for

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Inconsistencies in M and ? (LEPS) nK M(nK+) M(pKs)? Width of +(1540)? Two positive experiments: HERMES: = 17 9 2 MeV pK 0 S RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 ZEUS:

= 8 4 MeV K+N PWA indicates < 1 MeV Blair Ratcliff, SLAC However, there are now many high statistics negative results e.g., For the Ksp mass distributions seen in BaBar- the c is the only clear structure 1.4 - 5.4 GeV/c2 c 1.6 1.8 GeV/c2 1.44 1.60 GeV/c2 Observed Ratio (+(1540)/ *(1520)) <0.01 at 90% c.l. +(1540) 1.8 3.0 GeV/c2 c (~98,000 evts) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Examples of Negative Results for elle 155fb-1 (1520) nothing pKpKS m(GeV) Observed Ratio (+(1540)/*(1520)) <0.02 at 90% c.l. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC More Examples of Negative Searches for + Aleph Hera-B (1540) M(pKs) M(pKs) +(1540) M(pKs) CDF RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Summary of Negative Results K+N Scattering results exclude + widths greater than a few MeV. Widths less than about 1 MeV are possible. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Negative Results in Perspective Assume pentaquarks have J= expect F(+pKs0) = 25% expect F(5-- --) ~ 50%

F for 5-, 50 very unclear If pentaquark production follows the trend for ordinary baryon production then we expect: ~ 8x10-4 5+ per qq event ~ 4x10-5 5-- per qq event Limits are below expectations; 5+: 1.1x10-4 ( = 8 MeV) --: 2x10-5 ( = 18 MeV) But Most positive results at lower energies How unusual is the exotic production mechanism? (1520) may not beNov-Dec a reliable guide RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Sodo pentaquarks (especially the +(1540)) exist??

Expected in QCD Things that are not forbidden are compulsory! Predicted by chiral soliton model, which also predicts other exotic states. Spin, parity and mass may distinguish between models. If it exists, can provide a clear window beyond the nave quark model. BUTexistence is an experimental question! Experimental situation is, at best, equivocal. Need new high statistics experiments, especially in electro & photo production. Look for new results soon from CLAS, HERMES, COSY-TOF, KEK E559. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Update on Neutrinos By RICH02, it was clear that neutrinos oscillate. It has now been further confirmed. Neutrinos really do have small but finite masses! First clear confirmation of physics beyond SM A triumph for the large water RICH detectors!

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC 1. Solar: Major Neutrino Sources from Space From nuclear fusion All e Low energy.E <20 MeV 2. Atmospheric: From cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere p, He e/ 1/2 e L ~ 20 km e Super-K e Earth L ~ 104 km E ~ 300 MeV - 2 GeV If Neutrinos have mass, a mixing formalism much like that for quark mixing applies, so that Psin22sin2(1.27m2L/E) RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC

Super-Kamiokande 50K Ton H2O 1 km underground Full reconstruction xcellent/e separation via ring width. SK-I: 1996-2001 Nov 2001 Accident SK-II:2003-2005 Period #PMTs Photo Coverage Light yield Energy threshold RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 '96-'01 11,146 40 % ~6 p.e./MeV 5.0 MeV '03-'05 5,182 19 % ~2.8 p.e/MeV 8.0 MeV

Blair Ratcliff, SLAC The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 2092 meters deep underground 1000 tons of ultra-pure D2O in a 12 meter diameter acrylic vessel 7000 tons of ultra-pure H2O as shield 9500 PMTs mounted on a 18 meter diameter frame 40 helium proportional counters with total length of 398 m RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Analysis of SuperKamiokandeI from Atmosphere Zenith angle distributions 2-flavor oscillations Null oscillation Best fit

sin22=1.0, m2=2.1x10-3 eV2 2 = 175.2/177 dof 90% C.L. region: sin22> 0.92, 1.5 < m2 < 3.4x10-3 eV2 ~13000km ~500km RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 ~15km Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Neutrino interactions in SNO e d p p e (CC) Only e , Good measurement of E , Weak angle correlation 1-1/3cos x e x e (ES) e + 0.154( +) , Some energy information Strong angle correlation Low statistics

x d p n x (NC) e + + , No angle and energy information after thermalization RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC First Salt Results from SNO Enhanced NC detection 8/01-9/03 RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC Neutrino Highlights as of 2004 Neutrino oscillations firmly established! Solar

Atmospheric: m212 = (8.2+0.6-0.5)10-3 eV2 tan212 = 0.40 +0.09-0.07 large but not maximal. m223 = (2.40.4)10-3 eV2 sin2223 > 0.92 @ 90%CL maximal. From global fit: sin2213 < 0.09 @ 90%CL Lots more to come with Enhanced Neutron Detection in SNO Long baseline accelerator and reactor experiments decay and neutrino-less decay experiments

RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC The Past and the Future-Reprise Since RICH02: Lots of exciting new data with RICH detectors. Scope of Physics with RICH is extremely broad and diverse. Technique of choice when very high quality PID is required. Use of water or natural media (that ice/water/atmosphere) as radiators allows the construction of massive instruments with excellent performance for neutrino and astroparticle physics Provides excellent /e separation in Heavy Ion physics Only major experimental arena is un-RICHed is the high energy frontier (Fermilab/LHC/ILC). Physics with RICH will remain a forefront activity for the future. There will be many opportunities for those in the audience to attempt to review this great physics at future RICH conferences. RICH2004, Playa Del Carmen, Mexico, Nov-Dec 2004 Blair Ratcliff, SLAC

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Introduction to Chronic Pain Definitions and Pathophysiology

    Introduction to Chronic Pain Definitions and Pathophysiology

    Definition of Chronic Pain. Pain that persists past the normal time of healing. Variable: less than 1 month to more than 6 months. Typically use 3 months as the point of transition from acute to chronic pain . Six months...
  • The History of the English Language - WordPress.com

    The History of the English Language - WordPress.com

    The History of the English Language Proto Indo European (3,000 B.C.) Proto Indo European (3,000 B.C.) Sir William Jones (end of 18th century) Sanskrit Classical language of the Hindus Studied it in India Sanskrit + Ancient Greek + Latin =...
  • 3rd Hand plays High - Navnat Centre

    3rd Hand plays High - Navnat Centre

    Bridge with Harold Schogger THE ADVANCER The Advancer is the partner of the overcaller ...
  • Sodium and your health - Department of Nutrition and Food Science

    Sodium and your health - Department of Nutrition and Food Science

    Effects of sodium intake in heart failure: low-sodium intake may have varied effect on heart failure. Intravascular volume contraction improves hemodynamics and reduces diuretic requirement, congestion, and myocardial wall stress, leading to compensated heart failure.
  • سایر فنون الکتروشیمیایی در محلولهای ناآبی

    سایر فنون الکتروشیمیایی در محلولهای ناآبی

    Use of Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM) Sauerbrey,s equation, ∆f = -2∆mf02/A(μρ)1/2 where ∆ m is the mass change of quartz crystal surface, ∆ f is the frequency change caused by ∆ m, f0 is the fundamental resonant frequency of...
  • Türkiye Elektrik Sektörünün Finansman İhtiyacı

    Türkiye Elektrik Sektörünün Finansman İhtiyacı

    Türkiye Enerji Piyasası, 4562 ve 4628 /6446 sayılı Kanun ile Sanayi Bölgelerinin Faaliyetleri Muhsin ERSOY Başkan Danışmanı OSBÜK Eğitim Programı
  • chp 1

    chp 1

    Kids learn how to consume through the socialization process. They learn how to act as consumers from the environment around them. Parents are a big influence as are teachers. Kids learn a great deal from television, which for many is...
  • Voluntary Guidelines for Managing Food Allergies in Schools

    Voluntary Guidelines for Managing Food Allergies in Schools

    Did you know? A food allergy is an adverse immune system reaction that occurs soon after exposure to a certain food. Food allergy symptoms can include multiple organ systems including, respiratory, gastrointestinal tract, skin, cardiovascular, and neurological.