Identifying and Addressing Early Childhood Outcomes Data ...
Identifying and Addressing Early Childhood Outcomes Data Quality to Accurately Measure Improvement Cornelia Taylor, DaSy/ECTA Katrina Martin, DaSy, ECTA Tony Ruggiero, DaSy DEC Conference Louisville, KY, October 2016 Session Objectives Provide overview of Child Outcomes Facilitate small group discussion on implementation around recommended practices using the Herman Scenario Provide overview of ENHANCE study and key results
2 Child Outcomes States are required to report on infants and toddlers with Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) and preschool children with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) on three global outcomes: 1. Positive social-emotional skills (including social relationships); 2. Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills (including early language/communication [and early literacy]); and 3. Use of appropriate behaviors to meet their needs. 3
Why Gather Child Outcomes Data? Identify program strengths and weaknesses for improving program services and delivery Inform stakeholders, including families, about the effectiveness of the program Provide information for policymakers to justify future
funding of programs Meet federal government requirements The Two COS Questions To what extent does this child show age-appropriate functioning, across a variety of settings and situations, on this outcome (Rating: 1-7) Has the child shown any new skills or behaviors related to [this outcome] since the last outcomes summary? (Yes-No) 5
The COS Process Completed by a team including the family Information about child functioning across settings and situations is considered. A level of functioning relative to age-expectations is assigned to functional behaviors. Rating on 7-point scale is assigned for each of 3 child outcomes describing the degree to which functional behavior in the outcome is age expected. 7 Point Scale O v e ra ll A-A g ep p ro p ria te Child shows functioning expected for his or her age in all or almost all Completely means:
7 everyday situations that are part of the childs life. Functioning is considered appropriate for his or her age. No one has any concerns about the childs functioning in this outcome area. Childs functioning generally is considered appropriate for his or her age 6 but there are some significant concerns about the childs functioning in this outcome area. These concerns are substantial enough to suggest monitoring or possible additional support.
Although age-appropriate, the childs functioning may border on not keeping pace with age expectations. Child shows functioning expected for his or her age some of the time Somewhat means: 5 and/or in some settings and situations. Childs functioning is a mix of age-appropriate and not age-appropriate behaviors and skills. Childs functioning might be described as like that of a slightly younger child*. O v e ra ll N o t -A
A gpep ro p ria t e 4 Child shows occasional age-appropriate functioning across settings and situations. More functioning is not age-appropriate than age-appropriate. Child does not yet show functioning expected of a child of his or her age in any situation. Nearly means: 3 Child uses immediate foundational skills, most or all of the time, across settings and situations. Immediate foundational skills are the skills upon which to build age-appropriate functioning.
Functioning might be described as like that of a younger child*. 2 Child occasionally uses immediate foundational skills across settings and situations. More functioning reflects skills that are not immediate foundational than are immediate foundational. Child does not yet show functioning expected of a child his or her age in any situation. Childs functioning does not yet include immediate foundational skills Not yet means: 1
upon which to build age-appropriate functioning. Child functioning reflects skills that developmentally come before immediate foundational skills. Childs functioning might be described as like that of a much younger child*. 7 8 Age Anchoring Age-Expected Skills Immediate Foundational
Skills Foundational Skills 9 Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices for Assessment Involves multiple sources of information information from a childs family and other significant individuals in the childs life Includes multiple measures
observations, interviews, and direct assessments appropriate for the childs age and level of development, sensory, physical, communication, cultural, linguistic, social, and emotional characteristics 2014 DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education The COS process uses: Multiple Methods Multiple Sources of Information Curriculum-based assessment
Family Norm-referenced assessment Interventionists Developmental screening tool Teachers
Observation across settings and situations Parent report Service providers Physicians Child care providers Other people familiar with the child The COS process produces a synthesis of information. It is not an assessment.
Activity Herman Family Scenario In small groups: Read scenario that illustrates an early intervention teams assessment practices Review and reflect on the early intervention teams assessment practices In large group: Report out reflections on the early intervention teams assessment practices 12 ENHANCE Studies 4 Studies (2009-2013)
Provider survey Team decision-making study (videos) Child assessments study State data study ENHANCE Validity of the Data From the Child Outcomes Summary Process: Findings From the ENHANCE Project Research project funded in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute for Educational Sciences Series of studies designed to address whether the COS process produces meaningful and accurate data
about child outcomes for accountability and program improvement. 14 Overview of Key Findings On the basis of evidence collected across four studies, the authors concluded that when implemented as intended, the COS process produces ratings that are valid for accountability and program improvement purposes. 15 Key Findings Providers understood the types of behaviors included in each of the three child outcomes. Providers could accurately apply their knowledge of child development and the COS rating criteria.
The COS process could be incorporated into existing practice without negative consequences. With a few exceptions, children who were rated higher on the COS also scored higher on the assessment tools. 16 Key Findings (cont.) COS ratings were related to the childs functional abilities and type of disability. Children who entered EI and ECSE with higher COS ratings tended to exit the programs with higher COS ratings. Most states had stable percentages of children making greater than expected growth or exiting at age expectations over time as measured by the COS.
Some of the programs studied were not implementing the COS process as intended. 17 Key Findings (cont.) Some of the programs studied were not implementing the COS process as intended. Amount of training providers received varied considerably. Team discussions were very brief with an average of 10 minutes; more than half were 9 minutes or less. Some teams did not discuss the childs functioning in the outcome area in sufficient breadth or depth. Providers tended to rate their colleagues understanding of the outcomes and COS concepts lower than their own. 18
The contents of this tool and guidance were developed under grants from the U.S. Department of Education, #H326P120002 and #H373Z120002. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Project Officers: Meredith Miceli, Richelle Davis, and Julia Martin Eile. 22
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