Geography I. World Regions A) Political Regions Physical Regions include- climate, vegetation, political, economic, and cultural regions. B) Landforms and Physical Regions Archipelago- A group of islands scattered in an expanse of water. Bay- A body of water partly enclosed by land,

with access to the ocean. Canyon- A deep and narrow valley with steep sides and a stream of water flowing through it. Fjord- A narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high, rocky cliffs created by glaciers. Channel- A natural or artificial course for running water. Landforms and Physical Regions

Delta- The landform at the mouth of a river created by deposits of sediment. Gulf- part of the ocean that juts into the land. Island- A body of land smaller than a continent, that is entirely surrounded by water. Isthmus- A narrow strip of land with water on both sides that connects two larger bodies of land. Lake- A body of water surrounded entirely by land

Mountain Range- A chain of connected mountains Peninsula- A piece of land jutting into the water and almost surrounded by it. Plain- A broad area of mostly flat land at a low elevation. Landforms and Physical Regions Desert- A dry, barren land. Volcano- An opening in earth's crust through which lava, steam and rock fragments may

erupt. Mesa- A large, flat - topped hill common in the southwest U.S.. Glacier- A large mass of ice that moves slowly, from higher to lower ground. Rainforest- Dense forest that receives great amounts of rain. Landforms and Physical Regions Plateau- A broad area of mostly flat land at a high

elevation. River- A large stream of water that flows through the land into the lake, a sea, or an ocean. Sea- A large body of salt water, smaller than an ocean. Strait- A stretch of water joining two large bodies of water, narrower than a channel. Tributary- A stream or river that flows into a large stream or river. Valley- An area of low - lying land between

mountains of hills. C) Vegetation Regions Tropical Rainforest- near equator, Brazil (amazon), Mid Africa, Indonesian Archipelago Savanna- directly above/below equator, Africa (think Lion King), some of Australia, India, Eastern South America Tundra- the North Pole, top of Russia and Canada, Greenland Boreal Forest (Taiga)- most of Canada and Russia Mediterranean Shrub land- areas around the MEDITERRANEAN Sea, also

part of California and the bottom of South Africa Mid-latitude Forest- Eastern US, Western Europe, Eastern China Hot Desert- Western US, top of Africa, some of Australia, Saudi Arabia and some of the Middle East D) Climate Regions Tropical Dry 1. Hot temperatures year-round. 2. A wet season and a dry season.

Tropical Wet 1. Hot temperatures year-round 2. Rains quite a bit throughout the year. Humid Subtropical 1. Hot and humid summers. 2. Mild winters 3. Rains throughout the year, but heaviest in the summer months. Mediterranean

1. Hot and dry (little rain) summers 2. Mild and wet (more rain) winters Humid Continental 1. Hot and humid summers 2.Cold and snowy winters. 3. Good amount of rain in summer Marine West Coast 1. Cool Summers 2. Mild Winters

3. Rain throughout the year Subarctic 1. Cool Summers 2. Very Cold Winters Tundra 1. Cool summers 2. Extremely cold winters Ice Cap- Below freezing throughout the year. Arid- Extremely dry (less than 10 inches of rain per year)

Semi-Arid- Pretty dry (10 - 20 inches of rain per year) High Elevation 1. Found in areas with mountains. 2. Cooler temperatures throughout the year. 3. Temperatures get colder as the elevation gets higher. Climate Regions

Wind and ocean current are the two things most responsible for our weather and the patterns it creates E) 5 Themes Of Geography MR. LIP Movement- The travel of people, goods, and ideas from one location to another. Region- area described by its features Location- Where something is Interaction- How humans interact with their

environment Place- specific point on earth Geography II. Africa & the Middle East A) Physical Geography Africa is the 2nd largest after Asia. Mainly dry desert areas Birthplace of the three religions of Judaism,

Christianity and Islam. Africa & the Middle East have the largest Oil deposits in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa is the least developed area in the world. Early Civilizations developed here because of the underground water & the rivers (Nile, Euphrates & Tigris) Physical Geography

Long coastline Rivers Waterways constantly need upkeep to allow ships to pass through. (think Silt) Deserts Oil deposits B) Ecosystems of Africa & ME Two different areas where plants and animals

inhabit. Savanna & rainforest Savanna- wet & dry lions, giraffes, and elephants (large animals) Rainforest- snakes, monkeys ect., tigers C) Economy Cocoa Coffee Cotton

Peanuts Palm oil OTHER NOTES Apartheid- a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race. Nelson Mandela

ended apartheid. Geography III. Asia Asia Asia Is the largest continent on earth Most people in the world live here

Many island chains on this continentarchipelagos Russia is the largest, then China A) Physical Geography of Asia Rivers provide most of the areas that are not covered in mountains with fertile soil. Himalayan

mountains in this region are the highest in the world. Climate in this region ranges from monsoon rains to winter weather. Depends on the location Russia v

Japan Longitude and latitude dictate B) Vegetation, Agriculture & Economy Forest and grassland replaced by farmland Rainforests being cut down Tea, cotton, iron, limestone, rice, sugarcane, rubber, iron-ore, coal (China is mainly responsible for these goods)

C)Human & Political Geography Other religions in the Asian continents are Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Jainism, Christianity, and Sikhism. Countries like India, Sir Lanka, and Pakistan. Religion and philosophy helped to create hierarchical society This was removed by a revolutionary

movement, civil war and war with Japan. Communists ruled with Mao Zedong and the Samurai warriors. C)Human & Political Geography India's Economy is private enterprise with state control Chinas Econ is state is dominant, Mao, nationalized all industry and turned farming into a team effort

His successor Deng Xiaoping introduced foreign investment and gave some private ownership. US unpopular due to Vietnam war and support for Pakistan in the war against India US wants to use trade as a lever to force Geography IV. Europe Europe

Europe Asia is on the same continent as Europe. Europe was split into east and west known as the Iron Curtain. Fell at the end of the cold war. Western Europe and Soviet backed Eastern Europe.

A)The Impact of Geography on Agricultural & Industry No spot in Europe is less than 300 miles from the coast. The sea is used for fishing and extracting oil The sea is the reason for the temperate climate in Europe. The Great European Plain covers area from Germany to Russia. Eastern Europe is cold. Very Cold.

Very Mountainous. B) Cultural & Human Geography 26 Independent nations in Europe Site of World War I &II 2nd Largest exporter of agricultural goods.

The decline of communism to more democratic governments has caused a break up in Europe They have joined the EEC & NATO Closely allied w/ the

USA Geography V. Latin America Latin America Most of South America, Mexico and central America 4th Largest continent

A) Landforms Andes Mountains stretch 4,000 miles here. Mexico 15% of land is used for farming due to the rugged landscape. The Amazon River Basin Is located in LA

B) Climate Most of LA lies in the tropics- 80 Degrees Sometimes Hurricanes threaten this region Products that thrive in this climate are cocoa, sugar cane, tobacco, coffee C) Economic Geography

With the small amount of land that can support farming land is being cleared in the amazon. Deforestation contributes to Global Warming when carbon dioxide is released when trees ae cut down Many minerals found in this region copper, oil, tin.

D) Human Geography Latin America is divide by class rich v poor Relations with the US are stormy Since the Monroe Doctrine- document that opposed European colonization Although the US and certain people view this as US investment many see it as US Imperialism Geography

VI. Canada Canada 26 million people live in Canada 80% live on the border between the US & Canada A) Physical Geography

Similar to areas of the US Large prairies, mountains, the great lakes Weather much like Michigan B) Natural Vegetation, Resources and Economy Maritime- Island states or provinces Canadas resources are things like fish, forestry, wheat, dairy, oil and hydroelectric power.

Hydroelectric power or electricity made from the movement of water C)People and Culture Canada is influenced by the colonization of the French and the British. Its capital Toronto, is the largest city. The British Monarchy is still their head of state D) Relationship with the USA

Canada is completely free of Britain and France but their ties with Britain remain strong The relations with the US are more important

The USA trade with Canada more than any other country 20% 70% of all Canadian exports go to the USA The USA and Canada have had issues as well but

resolve them peacefully. Geography VII. Global Issues Global Issues Some of the issues the world faces are nuclear war, pollution, global warming, population rising, continua ting warfare.

A) Environmental pollution Global warming- the increase in earth temperature Causes sea levels to rise, melting of the glaciers and ice caps More extreme weather

Emissions- releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere Deforestationcutting/burning of trees Desertification- area turning desert B) Nuclear Proliferation

Proliferation- rapid increase The increase in nuclear energy and weapons poses a threat of war If nuclear war were to occur the earth and all who live here will be threatened. C)Ethnic, Tribal, and religious war Treaty of Versailles (1919)- created after WWI made new nations from ones that were defeated.

After WWII many of these new nations become product of Soviet-Russia. After the cold war (not a real war)- the Russian empire fell apart creating even more new nations and more battles. Ethnic Cleansing killing or removing people of a different ethnicity

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