History of Soil Testing, Contrasting Methods, Calibration ...

History of Soil Testing, Contrasting Methods, Calibration ...

Why does NDVI work? What biological parameter could I use to make agronomic decisions if it could be estimated indirectly? Plant Biomass Nitrogen Uptake http://nue.okstate.edu/Nitrogen_Uptake.htm NIR RED NDVI NIR RED NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetative Index Developed as an irradiance index for remote sensing Varies from -1 to 1

Soil NDVI = -0.05 to .25 Plant NDVI = 0.4 to 0.9 Typical plants with soil background NDVI=0.3-0.8 NDVI from different sources vary Bandwidths for Red, NIR vary Irradiance vs. reflectance based NDVI = (NIR Red)/(NIR + Red) Red: 660 +/- 15 NIR: 770 +/- 15 Green plants absorb light in the PAR spectral region, which they use as a source of energy. Chlorophyll strongly absorbs visible light (from 0.4 to 0.7 m) for use in photosynthesis Plants have evolved to reflect solar radiation in the near-infrared spectral region. Strong absorption at these wavelengths (+700nm) results in overheating the plant and plant tissue damage. Green plants appear dark

in the PAR and relatively bright in the near-infrared. Clouds and snow tend to be rather bright in the red (as well as other visible wavelengths) and quite dark in the near-infrared. Cell structure of the leaves, strongly reflects near-infrared light (from 0.7 to 1.1 m). http://nue.okstate.edu/VRT_Applicator/Wet_Dry_2002.htm Short wavelength High energy Long wavelength Low energy Phycoerythrin Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll Chlorophyll bb Phycocyanin Phycocyanin

B-Carotene B-Carotene 0.01 0.01 10 10 Infrared Infrared Ultraviolet Ultraviolet X-Rays X-Rays Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll aa 380 380 450 450 495 495 570 570 590 590 620 620 wavelength, wavelength, nm nm 750

750 http://nue.okstate.edu/History_of_OSU_Sensing.htm Sensor Design Micro-Processor, A/D Conversion, and Signal Processing Photo-Detector Optical Filters Ultra-Sonic Sensor Collimation Plant and Soil target Chlorophyll Meters Minolta: SPAD (soil plant analysis development unit ) 501 & 502 light absorbance (light attenuation) at 430 (violet) and 750 nm (red/NIR transition)

no tissue collection Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD) vs Leaf N concent Short wavelength High energy Long wavelength Low energy Phycoerythrin Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll Chlorophyll bb Phycocyanin Phycocyanin B-Carotene B-Carotene

0.01 0.01 10 10 Infrared Infrared Ultraviolet Ultraviolet X-Rays X-Rays Chlorophyll Chlorophyll aa 380 380

450 450 495 495 570 570 590 590 620 620 wavelength, wavelength, nm nm 750 750 On-the-go-chemical-analyses SoilDoctor selective ion electrode mounted

on the shank of an anhydrous ammonia applicator Electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements (Missouri) predicting grain yield sand deposition depth to clay pan Use of EM as a data layer to better predict yield potential Implications Reports of improved correlation between indirect measures and yield (EMI) versus soil test parameters

Soil testing (process of elimination) no single parameter is expected to be correlated with yield K vs yield P vs yield N vs yield pH vs yield White White Light Light Interference Interference Filter Filter Photodiode Photodiode Phycocyanin Phycocyanin Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll bb B-Carotene B-Carotene Phycoerythrin 380 380 450 450 495 495 570 570 Chlorophyll Chlorophyll aa

590 590 620 620 wavelength, wavelength, nm nm 750 750 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) = NIR ref red ref / NIR ref + red ref Early-season plant N uptake, kg ha -1 (up down) excellent predictor of plant N uptake

200 y = 1019.5x 3 - 1507.5x 2 + 811.5x - 130.32 R2 = 0.78 N*P Perkins, 1998 180 S*N Perkins, 1998 160 S*N Tipton, 1998 140 transect Stillw ater, 1999 transect Perkins, 1999

120 transect Efaw , 2000, Jan 100 transect Perkins, 2000 Jan transect Efaw , 2000 Mar 80 transect Perkins, 2000 Mar 60 40 20 0 0 0.1

0.2 N uptake, kg ha-1 http://nue.okstate.edu/Nitrogen_Uptake.htm 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 NDVI, Feekes 4-6 0.7 0.8

0.9 1 Education 27

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