History of Soil Testing, Contrasting Methods, Calibration ...
Why does NDVI work? What biological parameter could I use to make agronomic decisions if it could be estimated indirectly? Plant Biomass Nitrogen Uptake http://nue.okstate.edu/Nitrogen_Uptake.htm NIR RED NDVI NIR RED NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetative Index Developed as an irradiance index for remote sensing Varies from -1 to 1
Soil NDVI = -0.05 to .25 Plant NDVI = 0.4 to 0.9 Typical plants with soil background NDVI=0.3-0.8 NDVI from different sources vary Bandwidths for Red, NIR vary Irradiance vs. reflectance based NDVI = (NIR Red)/(NIR + Red) Red: 660 +/- 15 NIR: 770 +/- 15 Green plants absorb light in the PAR spectral region, which they use as a source of energy. Chlorophyll strongly absorbs visible light (from 0.4 to 0.7 m) for use in photosynthesis Plants have evolved to reflect solar radiation in the near-infrared spectral region. Strong absorption at these wavelengths (+700nm) results in overheating the plant and plant tissue damage. Green plants appear dark
in the PAR and relatively bright in the near-infrared. Clouds and snow tend to be rather bright in the red (as well as other visible wavelengths) and quite dark in the near-infrared. Cell structure of the leaves, strongly reflects near-infrared light (from 0.7 to 1.1 m). http://nue.okstate.edu/VRT_Applicator/Wet_Dry_2002.htm Short wavelength High energy Long wavelength Low energy Phycoerythrin Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll Chlorophyll bb Phycocyanin Phycocyanin
750 http://nue.okstate.edu/History_of_OSU_Sensing.htm Sensor Design Micro-Processor, A/D Conversion, and Signal Processing Photo-Detector Optical Filters Ultra-Sonic Sensor Collimation Plant and Soil target Chlorophyll Meters Minolta: SPAD (soil plant analysis development unit ) 501 & 502 light absorbance (light attenuation) at 430 (violet) and 750 nm (red/NIR transition)
no tissue collection Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD) vs Leaf N concent Short wavelength High energy Long wavelength Low energy Phycoerythrin Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll Chlorophyll bb Phycocyanin Phycocyanin B-Carotene B-Carotene
on the shank of an anhydrous ammonia applicator Electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements (Missouri) predicting grain yield sand deposition depth to clay pan Use of EM as a data layer to better predict yield potential Implications Reports of improved correlation between indirect measures and yield (EMI) versus soil test parameters
Soil testing (process of elimination) no single parameter is expected to be correlated with yield K vs yield P vs yield N vs yield pH vs yield White White Light Light Interference Interference Filter Filter Photodiode Photodiode Phycocyanin Phycocyanin Chlorophyll
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