History of Life

History of Life

History of Life Chapter 25 Evidence of Evolution comes from the fossil record Early Earth was much different than it is today Oxygen was not present until 2-3 billion years ago Cells were produced in 4 stages (hypothesized) 1. Abiotic organic molecules were synthesized

2. Molecules combined to form proteins and nucleic acids 3. Protocells formed from these combined molecules 4. These molecules were able to self-replicate producing possible inheritance http://en.es-static.us/upl/2018/08/meteorite-bombardment-early-earth-e1534283827597.jpg Oparin and Haldane/Miller-Urey

Earths early atmosphere added electrons to the atmosphere (reducing) Lightening and UV radiation could have helped synthesize organic compounds Primitive Soup Miller and Urey tested Oparin/Haldane hypothesis and confirmed amino acids can be synthesized from the primordial soup

Hydrothermal Vents (too hot to sustain organic compounds) and alkaline vents could play a role in producing organic compounds https://www.nature.com/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ ne0000/14457123/f3_kelley_412145ab.2.jpg RNA World 2009 study demonstrated that abiotic synthesis of RNA monomers could spontaneously form from on molecule Solutions of RNA and amino acids onto a hot medium (sand or clay) could produce polymers of these molecules https://royalsocietypublishing.org/cms/attachment/7dd9dd84-032a-477c-ba39-3374aa5ff78c/rsta20160337f01.jpg Enzymatic reactions are required for both reproduction and metabolism showing a need for

almost co-evolution (appearance together) RNA serves as both an enzyme catalyst and a key player in protein synthesis Ribozymes are RNA catalysts making short strands of RNA https://d2jmvrsizmvf4x.cloudfront.net/06TelM2kSVCba8v3gtPx_geologic-time-drawing-1540x951.77234152_c.jpg Fossils are FANTASTIC Fossil (any remnant of a living or once living species) found in sedimentary strata (rock layers) Relative age is determined by sequencing of strata (oldest on bottom)

Absolute age is determined by radiometric dating using isotopes such as carbon 14 (recent organic remains) which can tell you how many half lives have passed https://s.hswstatic.com/gif/fossil-record-1.jpg http://legacy.earlham.edu/~smithal/radgraph.gif https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/ Geologic_Clock_with_events_and_periods.svg/1200pxGeologic_Clock_with_events_and_periods.svg.png Biological life on Earth Geologic events play a significant role in species development and survival

http://images.slideplayer.com/28/9354904/slides/slide_12.jpg Geo time is broken into three eons- Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Stromatolites are the first fossil evidence, forming a thin film on rocks Oxygen did not come into play until about 2.5 BYA

Eukaryotes made an appearance 1.8 BYA Endosymbiotic theory: mitochondria and plastids were once prokaryotes Serial Endosymbiosis: mitochondria developed before plastids in separate events Cambrian Explosion https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0151/8127/files/ Art_Cnidarians_grande.jpg?579 ~ 535 MYA Eukaryotic multicellular organisms began to take over Sponges/Cnidarians/Mollusks evident in fossil record (even prior to CE)

https://study.com/cimages/videopreview/videopreview-full/ kcu6709l9x.jpg https://static1.squarespace.com/static/589b838a17bffcc533d6581c/t/ 589bdf831b10e3beb928cde3/1486610319194/IMG_0419.JPG 500 MYA LAND! 500 MYA plants moved from water to land Adaptations enabled plants to prevent drying out

Vascularity Waxy coating Plants symbiotically worked with Fungi (mycorrhizae) Arthropods (Insects) ~450 MYA

Tetrapods ~ 365 MYA https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d %3A32ef207fee5f279c0310c63e941662cc774a731e76812448759a9213%2BIMAGE_THUMB_POSTCARD %2BIMAGE_THUMB_POSTCARD.1 Earth Science review Plate Tectonics- Earth is divided into plates, the crust and rigid mantle (lithosphere) These plates ride on top of the asthenosphere (plastic mantle)

Convection Rising currents cause plates to move magma at divergent boundaries (ex: Mid Atlantic Ridge) Sinking magma at convergent boundaries (ex: Marianas Trench) Continental Continents drift on top of plates are moving, and will continue to

move, Fossils are found in places that are separated by oceans Extinctions allow for new Species to take over Evidence for changes in Earth come from the fossil record There were five major extinction events 1. Permian between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (251 MYA)- took 96% of marine

animal species Oceans changed, insects were wiped out Caused by extreme volcanism 2. Cretaceous- Saddest of them all 65.5 MYA Between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Dinosaurs (apex predators) wiped out Caused by asteroid- Chicxulub Crater and iridium in rock record https://phys.org/news/2015-11-elementary-theory-mass-extinctions-life.html Sixth Mass Extinction https://d2jmvrsizmvf4x.cloudfront.net/pLlO2yhHTwO19Ine5OEZ_Screen+Shot+2017-01-21+at+9.40.38+PM.png Mass Extinctions Cause Evolution

Fossil record shows that it takes 5-10 million years for biodiversity to recover after a mass extinction Biodiversity has increased over the last 250 million years Adaptive radiation- periods of evolution when new organisms form and fill new niches Organisms that have innovative features such as armor and seeds were able to fill roles previously unfilled

https://some-biodiots.weebly.com/uploads/2/1/8/9/21899636/6272792.png? Genetics meets the Fossil Record Heterochrony different time, change in the rate of developmental events Paedomorphosis- reproductive organs develop faster than other organs, species may look like juveniles but be reproductively mature Homeotic Genes regulatory genes can change/move turning appendages for swimming into

feeding appendages https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-B9780123859792000083-f08-019780123859792.jpg https://images.slideplayer.com/19/5833032/slides/slide_72.jpg Changes in regulation of a developmental gene may have less side effects than changing the actual gene sequence (pg 540) Changes in organism form could be a result of mutations on the regulation of gene expression not the gene itself Sickle Back Experiment Pitx1 change in sequences could reduce spines amino acid in both populations are the same Pitx1 regulation could reduce spines Gene expression is different in two species Final thoughts

Evolution does not have goals Organisms and Species do not change to fit their environment Exaptation's- structures that evolve in one context but are used for a different function Not all evolution is linear

http://slideplayer.com/9633064/31/images/5/ Exaptation+Also+called+preadaptation.jpg https://cdn.britannica.com/s:500x350/92/392-004-32E989F5.jpg

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