History of Forensic Chapter 1 - PC\|MAC

History of Forensic Chapter 1 - PC\|MAC

History of Forensic Chapter 1 Forensic Science is the study and application of science to matter of the law. (criminalistics) Forensic Latin word meaning forum, a public place where, in Roman times, a senators and other debated and held judicial proceedings.

Evidence anything that tends to establish or disprove a fact. Can include testimony, documents, and other objects. many types include: Hair, fibers, glass, drugs, body (physical) Ballistics the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles, most

other firearms and bullets. Breakdown of Departments The Department of Justice: FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation maintains the largest crime lab in the

world DEA Drug Enforcement Agency operates seven labs throughout the country work mainly on investigating major illicit drug activities

inside and outside the US. ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms operate 3 regional labs and a fire research lab. Deals with crimes involving weapons, explosives, tobacco, and organized crime.

The Department of the Treasury: IRS Internal Revenue Service specializing in questioned documents. The US Postal Service handles crimes involving mail. The Department of the

Interior maintains the US Fish and Wildlife Service specializing in crimes involving animals, ex: poaching and importing endangered species. The Department of Homeland Security Maintains the Secret Service lab 2 duties:

guard against counterfeiting and provide executive protection. What department would take care of it? You work at the bank and every day you put a $100 bill in your pocket and take it home. Anthrax was in a letter mailed to someone in the state building? A backpack was left at the Civic Center after presidential

visit. Explosive residue has been detected. Guns are being brought in through the airport, dogs have identified the planed. A dead body has been found in an abandoned house with bullet casing inside the house. A new drug lord has been identified. His source has also been tracked down. State or Local Examine drugs, soil, glass, paint, blood, spatter patterns, trace evidence

Firearms, bullets, weapons, tool marks Documents for handwriting, typewriting, word processing and computer applications, paper and ink Body fluids, DNA, blood factors, hair, fibers, plants, ect. Other disciplines within Forensics

Odontology: study and examination of bite marks and dental identification of corpses Pathology: study and investigation of sudden, unexplained, of violent death Entomology: the study of insects Palynology: the study of pollen and spores

Polygraphy: the use of the lie detector History of Forensic Science 1670 Leeuwenhoek 1st high-powered microscope is constructed 1735 Carl Linnaeus Father of Taxonomy, System of classification 1813 - Mathiew Orfila Father of modern toxicology publishes his book on

poisoning 1850 First time , a murderer is convicted in the US based on dental evidence 1879 - Bertillon develops system to id people using body measurements 1887 Arthur Conan Doyle 1st Sherlock Holmes story 1st person to use Forensic Science to solve murder cases 1892 Francis Galton uses fingerprints to solve crimes

1896 Henry fingerprint classification system now used 1921 John Larson builds 1st lie detector 1932 J. Edgar Hoover director of the FBI, established FBI Crime Lab is created. 1940 Landsteiner and Wiener Rh blood groups 1959 Watson and Crick discover the DNA Double helix 1972 Kevlar is introduced. 1977 Internet is born, (AFIS is also) Superglue

develops latent fingerprints 1979 Ted Bundy is convicted by a bite mark 1981 PC are introduced 1982 Term Serial Killer is first used. 1984 Jeffreys discover that each human being has a unique DNA, except identical twins. 1989 Gary Dotson 1st person conviction overturned on basis of DNA evidence. 1998 An FBI DNA database, NIDIS is initiated. 2001 USA PATRIOT Act allows for the search and seizure of computers

2007 400 Crime labs and nearly 40,000 people involved in forensic science in the US Scientific Method: Observe Look at the problem, evidence, collect the data Form a hypothesis Come up with a possible solution using critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, logic and creative thinking. Test, Experiment Think through all possible outcomes, are they supported with the evidence

at hand. Outcome Predict the possible outcome Confirm Validate your outcome through ALL evidence at hand. Laws: Statutory Law: Legislative acts declaring, commanding or prohibits something Common law or case law the body of law made

up of judicial opinions and precedents. Stare decisis to stand by the decision, meaning previous legal decisions are to be followed Civil law law that deals with noncriminal suits brought to protect or preserve a civil or private right or matter Criminal law regulation and enforcement or rights, setting the acceptable limits of

conduct in society Misdemeanor a minor crime, less that a felony, usually punished with a fine or confinement other than in prison. Felony a serious crime, such as murder, punishable by more than one year of imprisonment up to execution. Examples of misdemeanor

Indecent exposure Third-degree theft (Theft of up to $500) Sexual misconduct First-degree trespassing Third time DUI Third-degree domestic violence Unlawful assembly Cruelty to animals

Open house party Disorderly conduct Failure to get a gun permit Second-degree trespassing Harassment Removing a Shopping Cart from Store Premises Examples of a Felony 1st degree, 2nd and 3rd degree: by intending to and causing serious physical injury to another

person with a deadly weapon, dangerous instrument, Hate crimes Murder Arson Rape Intent to harm during: burglary, kidnapping, robbery, DUI, What type of crime did you commit? Ran over someone because you were mad at them? Planned a robbery, used guns and someone was killed in the robbery?

You went to Spencers in the mall and put a necklace in your pocket and walked out of the store without paying, but got caught? You were pulled over for running a red light, when you opened your glove box a gun fell out. You told the police it was yours, but you dont have a registration for it? You were at a party, had a little to drink, drove home, hit another car, the other person was killed? Another girl is dating your boyfriend, you HATE her, you post naked pictures of her, and slam her on FACEBOOK. She commits suicide.

Probable cause situation in which a reasonable and prudent person, viewing the available information, would conclude that a crime has been committed and that the suspect committed it.

Legal Consideration Fourth Amendment The right of the people to be secure into heir persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizure, shall not be violated and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or

things to be seized. Search warrant legal document that allows a search of self or property Must have: signature of judge, address of place to be searched, name of person or persons and what they are searching for. warrant less search there must be probable cause the existence of emergency

circumstances the need to prevent the immediate loss or destruction of evidence a search of a person and property within the immediate control of the person provided it is made incident to a lawful arrest a search made by consent of the parties involved

Can a policeman come into your home without a warrant in these circumstances? You are hiding a criminal? You are talking to the police on your front porch, they ask to come in and you say sure? You lock your front door, they say police, open up, you say no, why? You go to the door, awaken from sleep. Someone has called the police and reported

underage drinking downstairs of your house, but you are unaware of it. Fifth Amendment The right against self incrimination Miranda Right or warning you have the right to remain silent and have an attorney present before questioning

Indict to formally accuse a person of a crime Terms of a crime Booking police procedure following arrest that requests basic information Arraignment first act in a criminal proceeding, where the defendant is brought before court to hear charges to enter a plea Nolo contendere criminal lawsuit Bail money put up o guarantee that

the defendant will appear in court. Grand jury people Federal Rules of Evidence 1. Evidence must be relevant ( must prove something- be probative) Probative in evidence law tending to prove something 2. Evidence must address the issue of the crime ( be material ) Material relevant and significant.

3. Must be reliable, cannot be hearsay. Hearsay testimony given by a witness who relates not what he or she heard, saw, or knows personally, but what others have said. The knowledge is dependent on the credibility of the person who fist made the statement, and therefore is not admissible in court unless it meets a hearsay exception.

Three Facets of Guilt: Motive Means Opportunity Postmortem Lividity (livor mortis)blood settling and causing the skin to change colors, usually becomes fixed between 10 and 15 hours after death First 30 minutes first seen on a fair-skinned individual

4 8 hours all blood in capillaries sets permanently Between 1 and 8 hours visible PML can be affected by finger pressure Blanching light colored marks made by pressure of the fingers *Importance of livor mortis helps to establish time of death, whether the body

has been moved Rigor mortis the period of time that bodies go through a state of rigidity Time: 1-4 hours jaw and neck rigid, rest of body limp up to 8 hours everything down to the legs is rigid for 12 hours everything remains rigid 24 hours jaw is limp but everything else is rigid

30-32 hours everything but the legs are limp 36 hours no rigidity and some form of decomposition Temperature of body Stiffness of body Time Since Death

Warm Warm Not stiff Stiff Not dead more than 3 hours Dead Between 3 8 hours Cold Cold

Stiff Not Stiff Dead 8 36 hours Dead more than 36 hours 5 Manner of Death

Accident Suicide Homicide Natural causes Undetermined Neck injuries Strangulation accidental,

suicidal or murder Petechial hemorrhage ruptures in tiny capillaries particularly in whites of eyes and eyelids Hyoid bone fracture may indicate murder Hanging material ligature and the nature of the knots Jugular internal, external and superficial, if cut, blood flow is difficult to stop and death results

from loss of blood Causes of Death Brain Damage Blood clot Hematoma Suffocation SIDS Sudden Infants death syndrome

Positional asphyxiation position of the body such that breathing is impaired Food bolus choking SADS sudden adult death syndrome, person dies of unknown reasons Drowning Vomitos amigos (beige drinking, passing out, then vomiting and choking in

own vomited) Drug intoxication causes people to fall and drown Stab wounds Sharp force may be able to describe the knife wound (width, length, double-edged or single edged) Stab may puncture

vital organs, in and out Slice tend to be more defensive, wounds across, lines Blunt force being struck by a flat surface Morality individual conscience of right and wrong. Sometimes called moral values, codes of behavior or conduct. Individual habits of life in regard to right and wrong conduct.

Ethics- global interpretation of right and wrong, laws, is the philosophical study of morality, the actions of a particular group; and sometimes it stands for the systematic study of reasoning about how we ought to act.

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