Here's a sample - Weber State University

Here's a sample - Weber State University

Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition Chapter 9 Language Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:

Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Components of Language Phonology Rules about structure and sequence of

speech sounds Semantics Vocabulary - words and word combinations for concepts Grammar Syntax - rules for sentences Morphology - grammatical markers Pragmatics

Appropriate and effective communication Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Three Theories of Language Development Behaviorist Nativist Interactionist

Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language through universal grammar Inner capacities and environment work together; Social context is important Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Support for Biological Language Preparedness

Animal language Language seems to be unique to humans Brain structures Regions predisposed to language processing Sensitive period During brain lateralization Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Deaf Childrens Language

Deaf children develop language even when they have: Minimal input Later than hearing children, but do develop Homesign Inconsistent input Extract rules Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Language Areas of the Brain

Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Interactionist Theories of Language Development Information-Processing Theories Statistical learning theory Brain studies Social Interactionist Theories Native desire for understanding combines with rich

language environment Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Getting Ready to Talk: Receptivity to Language Newborns sensitive to speech Especially mothers Categorical speech perception Ability to distinguish phonemes Statistical analysis,

rule-learning Child-directed speech Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 First Speech Sounds Cooing - 2 months Vowel sounds Babbling - 4 months Consonants & vowels Universal timing Range expands

Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Becoming a Communicator Joint attention Give-and-take Preverbal gestures Protodeclarative Protoimperative Word-gesture combinations Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Parental Responsiveness and Language Learning Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Phonological Development Early Phase First words - can only pronounce few sounds Related to semantic development Understand more than can say Phonological Strategies Later development

Refine syllable stress patterns - related to meaning Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 One-Year-Olds Know Pronunciations Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Phonological Progress

Minimal Words Add ending consonant Adjust vowel length Add unstressed syllables Produce full word, correct stress pattern May still need to refine sounds Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Early Semantic Development Comprehension before production 5 month lag First words linked to cognition, emotion Vocabulary spurt 18-24 months Fast-mapping Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Individual Differences in Language Development

Gender Temperament Language environment Language Style Referential Expressive Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Types of Early Words Object and

Action More objects than actions Objects are easier concepts, parents rarely name verbs Influenced by culture & language State Modifiers or labels for attributes size, color, possession Learn general distinctions before specific Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Preschoolers Semantic Development Underextensions Overextensions Word coinages Metaphors

Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Elementary School-Age Semantic Development Big vocabulary increase Fast-mapping continues Analyze word structure Use words precisely, understand multiple meanings - metaphors, puns

Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Adolescent Semantic Development Abstract terms Sarcasm, irony Figurative language Proverbs Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Factors Contributing

to Semantic Development Adult feedback Cognitive processing Working memory - phonological store Strategies Lexical contrast Mutual exclusivity bias Syntactic bootstrapping Social information Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Early Grammatical Development

Telegraphic speech 2-word combinations Simple sentences 3 words Follow adult rules piecemeal, gradually refine and generalize Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Development of Grammatical Morphemes

Structural complexity affects order acquired Overregulation Applying rules without appropriate exceptions Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Complex Grammatical Forms Negatives Questions

Other Complex Constructions Nonexistence Rejection Denial Rising intonations Subject-verb inversion Correct yes-no questions precede wh- questions Connectives Embedded sentences Tag questions

Indirect object-direct object Passive sentences Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Views on Grammar Development Product of cognitive development Semantic bootstrapping Direct observation of language structure

Categories for bootstrapping Inborn capacities Language-making capacity Environmental support Adults correct indirectly with reformulations Asking for clarification Recasts Expansions Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Pragmatic Development 2-year-olds can have effective conversations Early childhood - turnabout Middle childhood Shading Illocutionary knowledge Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Factors that Enhance Pragmatic Development

Adult interactions Conversations Dialogues about storybooks, shared reading Siblings Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Testing Referential Communication Skills Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Development of Narrative Skills Leapfrog narratives - 4 years Few evaluations Chronological narratives - 4-1/2 to 5 years Classical narratives - 6 years Narrative styles learned from adults Topic-associating style Haiku style Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

Speech Registers Social routines Polite language Children sensitive to speech registers early 4-7 years Important to social acceptance Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Metalinguistic Awareness Ability to think about language as a system 4- and 5-year-olds have early

understanding Flowers in middle childhood Phonological awareness associated with reading success Advanced in bilingual children Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Learning Two Languages Learn both at No problems with language the same development

Good at both by preschool time Takes 3 to 5 years to be as good as One, then the same-age native speakers of second other language Both offer cognitive advantages of bilingualism Attention, reasoning, concepts, flexibility General language skills Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007 Types of Bilingual Education

Language immersion Strong in Canada English-only Favored in U.S. Risk of semilingualism Bilingual education Support and instruction in native language while learning English Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

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