Hall, Accounting Information Systems

Hall, Accounting Information Systems

Accounting Information Systems, 6th edition James A. Hall COPYRIGHT 2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. Cengage Learning and South-Western are trademarks used herein under license DFD of Payroll Procedures Manual Payroll System Personnel dept. uses

personnel action forms to: activate new employees change the pay rate of employees change marital status and/or number of dependents terminate employees Manual Payroll System Production employees fill out

two forms: job tickets - account for the time spent by the worker on each production job time cards - used to capture the total time worked each pay period for payroll calculations must be signed by a supervisor

Manual Payroll System Cost Accounting dept: uses the job tickets to allocate labor costs to WIP accounts summarizes these charges in a labor distribution summary which is forwarded to G/L dept. Manual Payroll System

Payroll dept receives personnel action forms and time cards. Uses them to: prepare the payroll register enter the information into the employee payroll records prepare paychecks send paychecks to Cash Disbursements and a copy of the payroll register to Accounts Payable

Manual Payroll System Accounts Payable dept: prepares a cash disbursements voucher for the total amount of the payroll sends copies to the Cash Disbursements and G/L depts. Manual Payroll System

Cash Disbursements dept: reviews and signs the paychecks and forwards them to a paymaster for distribution to the employees writes a check for the payroll and deposits it into the payroll imprest account Manual Payroll System G/L dept. makes the following journal entries:

From the Labor Distribution Summary WIP (Direct Labor) DR Factory Overhead (Indirect Labor) Wages Payable From the Distribution Voucher Wages Payable Cash Fed. Inc. Tax Withholding Payable State Inc. Tax Withholding Payable

FICA Withholding Payable Other Withholding Payables DR CR DR CR CR CR CR CR

Manual Payroll System G/L dept. makes a journal entry to transfer the cash from the operating bank account to the payroll imprest account: Cash - Payroll Imprest Account Cash - Operating Account CR

DR Payroll Procedures Flowchart Payroll Controls Transaction authorization - the personnel action form helps prevent: terminated employees from

receiving checks wage rates from being improperly changed for current employees Payroll Controls Segregation of Duties - timekeeping and personnel functions should be separated Supervision - need to monitor employees to ensure

they are not clocking in for one another Payroll Controls Accounting Records - audit trail includes: time cards job tickets disbursement vouchers

labor distribution summary payroll register subsidiary ledger accounts general ledger accounts Payroll Controls Access Controls - need to prevent employees from having improper access to: accounting records, such as time

cards which can be altered unsigned checks Payroll Controls Independent Verification: verification of time cards distribution of paychecks to authorized employees verification of accuracy of payroll

register by A/P dept. G/L dept. reconciles the labor distribution summary and the payroll disbursement voucher Computer-Based Payroll Systems Payroll is well-suited to batch processing and sequential files. Most employees on the master file

receive paychecks periodically. The computer program performs the detailed record-keeping, checkwriting, and general ledger functions. Reengineered HRM Systems Payroll can be reengineered as a part of

human resource management (HRM). IT can process a wide range of personnelrelated data, including: employee benefits labor resource planning employee skills and training pay rates, deductions, and pay checks evaluations Key Features of Reengineered HRM Personnel - can make changes to

the employee file in real time Cost Accounting - enters job cost data either daily or in real time Timekeeping - enters the attendance file daily Data Processing - still uses batch processing and prepares all reports, the checks, and updates the general ledger Reengineered HRM Systems

differ from automated manual and batch/sequential file systems because: operations depts. transmit transactions to data processing via terminals direct access files are used for storage many processes are performed real time real-time access to personnel files required for direct inquiries Reengineering PayrollBefore (Batch)

Reengineering PayrollAfter (Real-Time) The Fixed Asset System (FAS) Fixed Assets - property, plant, and equipment used in the operation of a business 1. Acquisition of asset.

Asset cost $ 2. Depreciation. 3. Subsequent expenditures. Dec line in

ass ets s er v ice Cost 4. Disposal

of asset. pot ent ia l Salvage value

Time (useful life) DFD of Fixed Asset System ComputerBased FAS Flowchart Objectives of FAS Acquire fixed assets in accordance with management approval and procedures

Maintain adequate accounting records of asset acquisition, cost, description, and location Maintain depreciation records for depreciable assets in accordance with acceptable method Provide management with information to help it plan future fixed asset investments Properly record the retirement and disposal of fixed assets

Asset Acquisition Begins when a dept. manager determines that an old fixed asset needs to be replaced or that a new fixed asset is warranted A purchase requisition is filled out. May require an authorizing signature for items over a pre-specified limit FAS dept. performs record-keeping

functions. Asset Maintenance Involves adjusting FAS subsidiary account balances as assets depreciate Depreciation calculations are internal transactions that the FAS system bases upon a depreciation schedule. Physical improvements must also be

recorded to increase the subsidiary account balance and depreciation schedule. Asset Disposal At the end of an assets useful life (or earlier disposition), the asset must be removed from the records and depreciation schedule Disposals require disposal request forms and disposal

reports as source documents. Computer-Based Fixed Asset SystemAcquisition Receipt of assets are digitally recorded in the system, along with information such as its useful life, depreciation methods, etc. Ledgers are automatically updated

Computer-Based Fixed Asset SystemMaintenance Computerized FAS automatically: calculate current periods depreciation update accumulated depreciation and bookvalue fields in the subsidiary records post total depreciation to the affected general ledger accounts record depreciation transactions by adding records to the journal voucher file Computer-Based Fixed Asset

SystemDisposal Computerized FAS automatically: post adjusting entries to the fixed asset control account in the general ledger record losses or gains associated with the disposal transaction prepare journal voucher records FAS Controls

Authorization - should be formal and explicit because of high cost of FAS: acquisitions changes in depreciation methods Supervision - threat of misappropriation requires constant management oversight: theft - secure physical locations of assets misuse - monitor on-the-job activities

FAS Controls Independent Verification - internal auditors should periodically verify FAS records: the reasonableness of factors used in decisions (useful life, discounts, budgeting model) location, condition, and fair value of the fixed asset records in the subsidiary ledger

the programming logic for automatic calculations (depreciation)

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