Gross Domestic Product

Gross Domestic Product

Gross Domestic Product MEASURING PRODUCTION Definition GDP the total value of all final goods and services produced for the market place during a given year within a nations border Attempts to measure what has been produced. Definition GDP the total value of all final goods and services produced for the market place during a given year within a nations border

the total value Advantages 1. Common unit of measurement (GDP allows you to compare apples to oranges. Because market prices measure the amount people are willing to pay for different goods, they reflect the value of those goods) 2. Allows items that use more resources / higher valued goods to be counted as more

Disadvantages 1. If prices rise, GDP rises, but society isnt any better-off (that is to say society doesnt have more goods and services to consume) final goods and services Only goods that are sold to the final consumer are counted Does not count intermediate goods Counting the value of intermediate goods constitutes double counting

An important exception to this principle arises when an intermediate good is produced and, rather than being used, is added to a firms inventory of goods for use or sale at a later date. In this case, the intermediate good is taken to be final for the moment, and its value as inventory investment in included as part of GDP. Thus additions to inventory add to GDP, and when the goods in inventory are later used or sold, the reductions in inventory subtract from GDP. produced Does not include every transaction only those that involve new production. Excludes items like selling stocks and bonds, used cars, winning the lottery, etc for the market place

Does not include non market production (because it is not reported). House cleaning Child Care Black Market activity during a given period Usually discussed as yearly or quarterly Typically reported as an annual number Measured with quarterly data though within a nations borders Inside the borders regardless of ownership

How to Calculate GDP Three Approaches Expenditure Approach Income Approach (Factor Payment Approach) Value Added Approach (Theory) All three methods yield the same value (Reality) The income numbers are considered more reliable Expenditure Approach GDP = C + I + G + NX C consumption (Household spending) I investment (Spending on capital) G Government (Government Spending)

NX Net Exports (Exports minus Imports) Extended Circular Flow Model (Open Economy) Sprivate T Households Y Governmen t C Spublic

G Goods & Services Market Factor Market I Loanable Funds Market X GDP

Y NCO M Rest of the World Firms Iplanned Extended Circular Flow Model (Open Economy) Red Red Arrows

Arrows Represent Represent GDP GDP Sprivate T Households Y Governmen t C Spublic

G Goods & Services Market Factor Market I Loanable Funds Market X GDP

Y NCO M Rest of the World Firms Iplanned Extended Circular Flow Model (Closed Economy) Sprivate T

Households Y C G Goods & Services Market Factor Market I

Governmen t GDP Y Firms Iplanned Spublic Loanable Funds Market Factor Market

Goods & Services Market Loanable Funds Market Supply: Demand: Supply: Demand: Supply: Demand: Factor

Market Goods & Services Market Loanable Funds Market Supply: Households Demand: Firms Supply: Firms Demand: Households + Firms + Government + Rest of the World Supply: Households + Government Demand: Firms + Rest of the World

Expenditure Approach GDP = C + I + G + NX Note: For the economy as a whole, income must equal expenditure. Therefore GDP also equals income! So, GDP = Y = C + I + G + NX C consumption (Household spending) Includes Excludes 1. Value of food

1. Used goods produced on farms that is consumed by farmers 2. Total value of housing services provided by owneroccupied homes 2. Stocks, bonds, land 3. New home construction I - Investment Investment is capital formation Capital formation is the change in the capital

stock The capital stock is the sum of the value of all capital goods I - Investment Includes Excludes 1. Business 1. Government purchases of factories, equipment and software. 2. New-home

construction 3. Changes in inventories (changes in unsold investment 2. Consumer durables 3. Human capital 4. Depreciation (ignores all depreciation) G - Government Spending by the local, state & federal levels on goods and services Includes Govt Consumption and Govt

Investment Excludes transfer payments such as social security NX net exports NX = Exports - Imports Income Approach (Factor Payment Approach) The sum of all rents, wages, interests and profits (or dividends). We are summing the payments of all factors of production used to produce all goods and services Value Added Approach

Measures the value added to a good or service at each stage of production Value-added revenues received for a given good or service minus the costs of all intermediate goods used to produce it Problems with GDP Quality changes Underground Economy Nonmarket Production Depends largely on goods and services (what about leisure?) Ignores economic bads (like war, disease, crime, etc) Ignores inflation (see Nominal GDP vs. Real GDP)

Real GDP vs Nominal GDP Nominal GDP GDP at current prices Real GDP Adjusts for inflation with constant prices from a base year. GDP Deflator A measure of the price level using the ratio of Nominal GDP to Real GDP times 100. Nominal GDP in the US Real GDP in the US Real GDP (RGDP) vs Nominal GDP (NGDP)

Country: Venezuela Increases in Nominal GDP do not represent growth only increases in Real GDP represent growth also see Zimbabwe they had the fastest NGDP growth in the world a few years back, and was deep in recession. Real GDP vs Nominal GDP We can use GDP Deflator as one way to track the price level (that is to say we can track inflation). Inflation is viewed to be an increase in the overall price level. Deflation is viewed to be a decrease in the overall price level.

The inflation rate is the percent change in the price level from one time period to another. Calculating GDP Deflation and the Inflation Rate Charlotte, NC produces two goods: Panthers footballs and Hornets basketballs. Below is a table showing prices and quantities of output for three Year years: Price of Quantity of Price of Quantity of Footballs Footballs Basketballs Basketballs 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. Year 1 $10 120 $12 200 Year 2 $12

200 $15 300 Year 3 $14 180 $18 275 Calculate Calculate

Calculate Calculate Calculate Nominal GDP in each year. Real GDP in each year (using Year 1 as the base year) the GDP Deflator for each year. the Inflation Rate from Year 1 to Year 2. the Inflation Rate from Year 2 to Year 3. Calculating GDP Deflation and the Inflation Rate Year Price of Footballs Quantity of Footballs

Price of Quantity of Basketballs Basketballs Year 1 $10 120 $12 200 Year 2 $12

200 $15 300 Year 3 $14 180 $18 275 Nominal GDP in Year 1 = ($10 120) + ($12 200) = $3,600

Nominal GDP in Year 2 = ($12 200) + ($15 300) = $6,900 Nominal GDP in Year 3 = ($14 180) + ($18 275) = $7,470 Real GDP in Year 1 = ($10 120) + ($12 200) = $3,600 Real GDP in Year 2 = ($10 200) + ($12 300) = $5,600 Real GDP in Year 3 = ($10 180) + ($12 275) = $5,100 GDP deflator for Year 1 = ($3,600/$3,600) 100 = 1 100 = 100 GDP deflator for Year 2 = ($6,900/$5,600) 100 = 1.2321 100 = 123.21 GDP deflator for Year 3 = ($7,470/$5,100) 100 = 1.4647 100 = 146.47 Calculating GDP Deflation and the Inflation Rate Year Price of Footballs Quantity of Footballs

Price of Quantity of Basketballs Basketballs Year 1 $10 120 $12 200 Year 2 $12

200 $15 300 Year 3 $14 180 $18 275 Inflation from Y1 to Y2 = ((123.21100)/100)*100 = 23.21% Inflation from Y2 to Y3 = ((146-123.21)/123.21)*100 = 18.49%

Real GDP Deflator in the US

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