Grades of Meat

Grades of Meat

Chapter 6 Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Grades of Meat Meat inspection: mandatory in the US; ensures meat is wholesome and that the processing facilities meet food safety standards. Grading is voluntary. Grading refers to the meats quality. The quality of meat is based primarily on its overall flavor and tenderness. 1. Quality grade measures the flavor of meat products. The USDA evaluates meat for traits that indicate its tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. (prime highest grade, choice middle grade, select lowest grade)

2. Yield grade measures the proportion of edible or usable meat after it has been trimmed of bones or fat. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 2 Cuts of Meat A chef must understand the various cuts of meat, the physical composition of the muscle tissue, and how it is affected by heat. Muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue. This tissue makes the meat tougher but also more flavorful. 2 types of connective tissue Collagen: breaks down during long, slow, moist-heat cooking

Elastin: will not break down during cooking; must be trimmed 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 3 Cuts of meat cont. The most tender cuts of meat comes from muscles with little exercise After butchering, the meat must be aged between 48 and 72 hours to allow the muscles to relax; longer aged = darker color, better flavor, and more expensive After aging, the butcher cuts the carcass into primal cuts.

After primal cuts, fabrication can take place. Fabrication is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions. 4 Cuts of Meat (Cont.) Retail cuts of meat are those cuts that are ready for sale. Amount of butchering to prepare retail cuts affects its price Restaurants can purchase retail cuts that are primal cuts, and then fabricate them for their own use or buy fabricated portions. Fabricators make cuts from the boneless loin or tenderloin of beef, veal, lamb, or pork into a variety of menu cuts (1st step of all is to trim away the fat) Medallions or noisettes: small, round pieces Scallops: thin, boneless cuts that are lightly pounded Emince: thin strips of meat used for sauteeing 6.1

Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 5 Cuts of meat cont. Offal meat is organ meat from hogs, cattle, or sheep. Though no longer popular in the United States, offal meat is still enjoyed in other regions of the world. Game meat is meat from animals that are not raised domestically. Kosher meat is slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws. 6 Purchasing and Storing Meat

Consider the following general guidelines when purchasing meat: Cost: Fabrication is a way to reduce meat costs. Fat Content: The fat content of meat products often influences the cooking method used (meat with marbling lines of fat within meat cut, stay moist with both dry and moist cooking techniques) Equipment: Consider the types of equipment an operation has before deciding what types of meat products to purchase. After purchasing and accepting it for delivery, properly store it: Store in coldest part of cooler 41 degrees or lower Below ready to eat food Use FIFO 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 7

Cooking Techniques The chef s goal while cooking meat is to maximize flavor and tenderness while minimizing the loss of moisture. In dry-heat methods, such as broiling, grilling, and roasting, meats cook quickly; best for naturally tender cuts (steaks, chops) Another way to prepare meat is to use dry-heat cooking methods with fat and oil. These methods include sauting, stir-frying, pan-frying, and deep-frying. Moist-heat cooking techniques produce food that is delicately flavored and moist with a rich broth (pot roast) Combination cooking methods, braising and stewing, use both dry and moist heat to cook food that is not very tender. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood

8 Determining Doneness Rare: internal temperature is 130F. The meat appears red inside with a thin layer of brown on the outside. Medium: internal temperature of 145F; meat is pink inside with a well-browned surface; meat is firmer than rare meat. Well-done: completely cooked, leaving little or no juice; meat is firm and dry, and the internal temperature is 160F. In general, as meat cooks, the exterior should develop a deep brown color. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood

9 Grades of Poultry U.S. poultry grades apply to chicken, turkey, duck, geese, guinea, and pigeon. Poultry receives a Grade of A, B, or C (A being the highest). Use Grade A poultry as is, meaning cook the bird and its parts and consume them in their entirety, without processing. Use Grades B and C poultry in processed products where the poultry meat is cut up, chopped, or ground. The class of poultry is defined mostly by the age of the bird. A birds age generally affects the tenderness, look, and feel of the bird. 6.2

Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 10 Two Forms of Poultry: White and Dark The two distinct differences in poultry forms are white meat and dark meat. Each type of meat holds different nutrition values. White meat is from the areas of the fowl where little muscle use takes place, such as the breast: White meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster Dark meat is from areas where the birds muscles are used more heavily, such as the leg and thigh region: Dark meat is higher in calories and fat. Dark meat also tends to be the richer, more flavorful meat. 6.2

Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 11 Purchasing, Fabricating, and Storing Poultry Guidelines for poultry purchasing include: Freshness: frozen poultry does not look different from a fresh-poultry product. Form: The operation determines whether dark meat or white meat is preferable and makes purchases accordingly. Equipment: An operation decides what types of poultry products to purchase and how much to purchase by considering the types of equipment it has. Cost: As with meat purchases, in-house fabrication is a way to reduce costs.

Store fresh, raw poultry at an internal temperature of 41F or lower. Store frozen poultry at a temperature that keeps it frozen. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 12 Cooking Techniques for Poultry Poultry is suited to the dry-heat cooking techniques of grilling, broiling, and roasting (roasting requires more time because whole chicken is trussed legs and wings are tied to birds body) Also well suited to dry-heat cooking with fat (sauting, stirfrying, pan-frying, and deep-frying) ; require tender, portionsize pieces. Moist-heat cooking: steaming is a healthy way to prepare poultry because nutrients are not washed away

Chicken is a natural ingredient for the combination cooking methods of stewing and braising (mole poblano, a popular Mexican sauce is use in Chicken Poblano) 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 13 Seafood Inspections and Grades The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors interstate fish shipments and also requires fish processors to adopt a HACCP program. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) publishes grades for seafood that has been inspected. Items are typically graded as A, B, C, or Below Standard. Grade A is the highest quality

Some Grade B items may be used by a restaurant in certain recipes 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 14 Forms of Seafood Fin fish have a backbone and can live in fresh water or in the ocean; classified according to their shape: Round fish have a round body shape and one eye on each side of the head, and they swim upright in salt water or fresh water. (cod, mahi-mahi, tuna, trout) Flatfish are oval and flat in shape and have two eyes on the front part of the head (flounder, halibut)

Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water: Crustaceans: outer skeleton and jointed appendages (crabs, shrimp) Mollusks have one or two hard shells (oysters, clams) Cephalopods have a single internal shell and tentacles (squid) 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 15 Purchasing Seafood The guidelines for purchasing fresh seafood include: Market form: Vendors can supply seafood to an operation in a number of ways. Storage capabilities: Fresh seafood is highly perishable; therefore, adequate storage facilities are a must for seafood items to ensure as long a shelf life as possible.

The market forms of fin fish include: whole or round drawn: only viscera (guts) removed dressed: viscera, scales, fins, and head removed butterfly fillet: two sides cut away from backbone fish fillet: boneless pieces cut from the sides steak: cross section cut (larger fish usually) 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 16 Fabricating and Storing Seafood Fin fish fabrication techniques consist of scaling, trimming, gutting, and filleting the fish. Once filleted, can be cut into: Goujonettes: small strips

Paupiettes: thin, rolled fillets filled with stuffing Shucking is the opening or removing of a mollusks shell. Shrimp are cleaned by removing the shell and deveining them. Deveining is the process of removing a shrimps digestive tract. Fresh fish is very sensitive to time-temperature abuse and can spoil quickly if it isnt handled correctly. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 17 Receiving Fish, shellfish Fish: Bright red gills Clear, full eyes

Should be in crushed, self-draining ice Shellfish: Shells should be closed ID tags must stay attached to container until all shellfish have been used and retained for 90 days after last item is served 18 Cooking Techniques for Seafood The best way to pair a fish with a cooking technique is to consider the flesh of the fish. Fatty fish cut into fillets or steaks are the best cooked by baking, broiling, and grilling. Lean fin fish and shellfish are best when using dry-heat cooking with fat and oil, such as sauting, stir-frying, panfrying, and deep-frying. Moist-heat cooking techniques En papillote (cook fish in the oven enclosed in parchment paper with herbs,

vegetables) Combination cooking method, stewing and braising, are used when cooking bouillabaisse (French seafood stew) 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 19 Determining Doneness Guidelines for determining seafood doneness include: Flesh turns from translucent to opaque: Raw flesh of most fish is translucent. When the flesh turns a denser, more opaque shade, the fish is done. Flesh becomes firm: As flesh cooks, it becomes firmer and springs back to the touch when done. Flesh pulls easily away from bone: As fish cooks, flesh loosens and can be effortlessly separated from bone when

done. Flesh begins to flake: As fish cooks, connective tissue breaks down and muscle fibers begin to separate from each other, or flake. Fish is done as soon as flaking starts to occur. It is better to undercook the fish slightly and allow carryover cooking to bring it to doneness. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 20 Definitions of Charcuterie and Garde Manger Charcuterie refers to specially prepared pork products, including sausage, smoked ham, bacon, pt, and terrine.

Garde manger is the department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef who is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items, and similar dishes. 6.4 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 21 Types of Charcuterie Traditionally, sausages were ground pork that the preparer forced into a casing made from the lining of animal intestines. Today, many ingredients are used to make sausage including

game, beef, veal, poultry, fish, shellfish, and even vegetables. The three main types of sausage are: Fresh sausage (breakfast sausage, kielbasa, andouille) Smoked or cooked sausage (knackwurst, bratwurst) Dried or hard sausage (salami, pepperoni) Forcemeat is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat that is emulsified, or forced together, in a food grinder and then pushed through a sieve to create a very smooth paste. 6.4 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 22 Forcement cont. Forcemeat is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat that

is emulsified, or forced together, in a food grinder and then pushed through a sieve to create a very smooth paste. Pate rich loaf made of meat and baked in a mold Pate de campagne (country-style forcement); slightly coarser pieces of meat) Pate en croute: forcemeat is wrapped in pate dough Mousseline: forcemeat of white meat mixed with cream and egg whites shaped into small ovals and poached in a rich stock to make quenelles 23

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