Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) - a novel particle detector for ...

Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) - a novel particle detector for ...

M ME0 Baseline Design, Project Planning & Execution Marcus Hohlmann Florida Institute of Technology Comprehensive Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN, June 28, 2016 E0 Outline M E0 Motivation Performance requirements Status of baseline design Schedule, milestones, project planning Summary 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 2 ME0 muon detector in CMS M E0

New nose of CMS endcap: Services for HGC/BH Services for ME0 High Granularity Calorimeter (silicon) elm. Backing Hadron Calorimeter (scintillator) had. 6 ME0 chambers 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 3 M E0 ME0

MOTIVATION 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 4 Motivation for ME0 Extends muon coverage to || < 2.82 M E0 Charge 2b Tags high- tracks/calorimeter objects as muons Increases acceptance for physics with muons, e.g. by ~ 20% for H ZZ 4 channel Triggering muons with ME0 in its lower- section 2.03 < || < 2.5 looks possible GE1/1 covers up to || ~ 2.15 ME0 restores muon trigger performance from || ~ 2.15 HGCAL & BH to full original muon endcap envelope of || ~ 2.5 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN

5 Trigger enhancement ! cause Muon direction measurement with GE1/1ME1/1 chambers decreases L1 rate substantially E0 Charge 2b Low magnetic field causes an explosive growth of the CSC muon L1 trigger rate towards high Mismeasured low-pT muons L1 rate to blow up M L1 muon candidate But limited to the region || < 2.15 Solution: use ME0 stubs to repeat GE1/1 trick This will restore L1 muon trigger capabilities in the entire original design envelope of || < 2.5 6/28/2016

M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 6 M E0 ME0 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 7 Minimal performance requirements Discriminate muons from n, backgrounds M E0 Charge 3 Find muon stubs among background hits at rates up to 30 kHz/cm2 Handle overall particle rates comfortably (det. & electronics) Expected max. tot. hit rate from simulation: 30 kHz/cm2 (near || ~ 2.8) Expected max. total chamber hit rate: 50-100 MHz

Resolve hit positions about as well as GE1/1 Azimuthal resolution: ~ 300 rad Radial () resolution: r ~ 1-3 cm (-dependent) (these estimates are starting points for simulation group; to be finalized) Resolve hit time sufficiently for clear BX association Timing resolution: t <~ 8 ns Minimize discharges and aging effects Survive for 10 HL-LHC years These requirements are the main drivers of the ME0 design 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 8 ME0 muon segments Background hits Muon hits Six ME0 chambers 6/28/2016 M E0 In analogy with the

six-layer cathode strip chambers, six layers of ME0 chambers are expected to provide sufficient information to efficiently identify muon segments among background hits. M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 9 Background flux & rate M E0 Charge 3 Particle flux Max. flux in innermost ME0 section Co ME nvo 0 s lute en w to sit ith d

ivi pa iffe ty us rticl ren ing e t t GE ype AN s T ME0 needs to handle a hit rate of 1- 30 kHz/cm2 Hit rate Now incorporates proper FLUKA treatment of HGCAL and BH in front of ME0 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 10 Resolutions ME0 fulfills similar function for L1 muon trigger as does GE1/1 (stub bending measurement relative to ME1/1 CSCs) => Requirements for ME0 space and time resolutions are similar to those for GE1/1 Resolve azimuthal position ME0 sufficiently for appropriate = ME0-ME1/1 measurement (given the rate environment): M

E0 Charge 3b Azimuthal resolution: _ME0ME0 ~ 300 rad Radial resolution: r ~ 1-3 cm Resolve hit time sufficiently for clear BX association of hits: Timing resolution: t <~8 ns Exact specifications still under study with reconstruction and trigger simulations 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 11 M E0 ME0 STATUS OF BASELINE DESIGN 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN

12 Baseline: Triple-GEMs M E0 6 layers of Triple-GEM chambers very similar to the GE1/1 chambers are expected to satisfy all minimum requirements and consequently constitute the baseline design for ME0: 6 ers y la o k: c a t s 0 s ber E M am ch M E -G e

l ri p T f Triple-GEM chamber (similar to GE1/1) 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 13 ME0 baseline design M E0 Charge 3d ME0 baseline design closely follows the GE1/1 design: Triple-GEM detectors w/ 3/1/2/1 mm electrode gaps (as GE1/1) Coverage: 2.03 < || < 2.82 20-degree chambers (vs. 10-degree chambers for GE1/1) Chamber construction & assembly very similar to GE1/1 Chamber dimensions slightly smaller than GE1/1-S chamber 6 chambers in one ME0 stack (module) 18 stacks per endcap; 36 stacks total 216 chambers, 648 GEM foils required (50% more than GE1/1) 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 14

Constraints on design Main constraints: M E0 Charge 3c endcap calorimeter constrains space available for placing ME0 chambers; limits number of ME0 layers to six layers no access after installation due to calorimeter services 20.5 cm 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 15 ME0 insertion into endcap nose M E0 Charge 5 In order to assure overlap between two adjacent detectors, stacks will be installed alternating front and back sides of stacks: front

back 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 16 ME0 chamber overlap Adjacent stacks overlap by 6.5 cm to ensure hermetic coverage M E0 Charge 5 Detector overlaps 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 17 Baseline electronics design M E0 Charge 5

One optohybrid per chamber ME0 baseline electronics design closely follows GE1/1 electronics design: Current design uses 8 3 readout sections; exact segmentation under study, to be finalized readout section (128 strips) 24 VFAT 5184 (24 x 6 x 36) binary front-end chips (VFAT); 128 channels (strips) per VFAT 1 GEB 216 opto-hybrids w/ 24 VFAT inputs each 1 GEM Electronics Board (GEB) per chamber, 6 GEBs per stack; 216 GEBs total for ME0 system 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 18

Validation & completion of baseline M E0 Charge 6 Remaining design validation steps: Confirm resilience against discharges The number of discharges is to be minimized Discharges that do occur should not have any ill effects on the long-term detector operation (non-destructive) Accumulate sufficient charge in GIF++ aging test Need to accumulate 0.6 C/cm2 while monitoring gain Completion of component design: All component design closely follows GE1/1 design Produce actual design drawings of components GEM foils, drift and readout PCBs, frames, GEBs, 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 19 Discharge test with Triple-GEMs Accumulation of 450 discharges over a few cm 2. However, conditions quite different from those in CMS. M E0

Charge 6 Observations: Discharges are non-destructive No impact on gain Thin deposition of copper oxide in the irradiated region (all GEM foils) Superficial copper etching near the rim of the holes These do not affect the detector operation In CMS, for ME0 we expect ~1.5 10-5 discharges s-1 cm-2, or ~ 5 10-5 discharges per second over a few cm2, or one discharge every ~2 104 seconds over a few cm2. => The test corresponds roughly to 9 106 s of running in CMS, i.e. 15% of the total expected up-time of 6 10 7 s of the HL-LHC over 10 years. Caveat: There are large uncertainties in these estimates! Conclusion: Promising, but need to revisit estimates and do more tests to reach 10 HL-LHC equiv. years. If this indeed poses a problem, investigate mitigation. 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 20 R&D for baseline optimization

M E0 Charge 5 Addressing the space constraint By coupling two adjacent chambers using a single double-sided drift PCB, it might be possible to remove three of the six PCB from the stacks and to reduce the stack thickness by about 6-10 mm. R&D for this back-to-back design (B2B) is ongoing with prototypes. chamber 1 drift gap drift gap Chimney housing services chamber 2 GEB RO PCB Drift PCB ~ 18 mm RO PCB GEB ~ 40 mm ~ 18 mm

6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 21 Back-to-back GEM rates Measurements performed on 1010 cm 2 back-to-back prototype with 109Cd source M E0 Charge 5 Placing the source in different positions (red markers below) on the active window to test the operation of the entire active area Both sections of the detector work properly reaching rate plateaus. 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 22 Back-to-back GEM beam test M E0

Charge 5 Preliminary results from run at H2 test beam: is comparable to GE1/1 Tracker GEM Back-to-back GEM Tracker GEM Time resolution (ns) Readout with four VFAT2 chips (40 MHz sampling) Timing resolution ~10ns Ar/CO2 70:30 Timing scintillator 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 23 System demonstration M

E0 Charge 6 A first ME0 demonstration is essentially accomplished with a successful GE1/1 slice test since the ME0 design follows the GE1/1 design closely What remains to be done after that is the assembly of a complete ME0 stack fully integrated with electronics and all services 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 24 Detector production steps M E0 Production steps are analogous to GE1/1 production: ME0 stack Assembly 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 25

Detector production M E0 Charge 8 Tooling and setups (X-ray, copper boxes, cosmic ray stand) prepared for the GE1/1 production can be reused for ME0 production and tests. Crew trained for the production and test of the GE1/1 can easily move to the production and commissioning of the ME0 baseline detectors. Production sites certified for the production of GE1/1 chambers dont need to be certified again. Production of ME0 modules can be seen as continuation of the GE1/1 and GE2/1 chamber production The new CMS GEM clean room, in preparation in bd. 904 (Prevessin) will be large enough to host the assembly of the ME0 stacks. 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 26 M E0 ME0

PROJECT PLANNING, SCHEDULE & MILESTONES 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 27 Complete ME0 Merlin schedule M E0 Charge 8 Fo 6/28/2016 fe r re re on e c n ly M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN

28 Schedule towards TDR M E0 Charge 8 2016 2017 All R&D up to TDR TDR 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 29 ME0 Production schedule M E0 Charge 8 6/28/2016

M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 30 Schedule drivers Foil Production M E0 Charge 8 Modules Super-Chambers (GE1/1)/ Chambers(GE2/1) / Stacks (ME0) Total Number Vendors Yield per mo. per vendor Time (mos) Total Number

Assy lines Yield per mo. per line Time (mos) Total number Assy lines Yield per mo. per line Time (mos) GE1/1 432 1 22 20 144

4 2.5 15 72 1 12 6 GE2/1 864 2 18* 24 288 4* 2.5 29 72

1 6 12 ME0 648 2 18* 18 216 4* 2.5 22 36 1 3 12

Detector production stages are staggered Separate production lines for module assembly and assembly of final installation unit (GE1/1 superchamber; GE2/1 chamber; ME0 stack) Schedule drivers (stars indicates conservative estimates): GE2/1 and ME0: module production followed by GEM foils Electronics development Becomes a schedule driver if development beyond VFAT3 is needed 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 31 ME0 high-level milestones M E0 Charge 8 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 32

Summary & Conclusions M E0 Triple-GEM detectors constitute the ME0 baseline; they satisfy all basic performance requirements Remaining issues are experimental validation of resilience against aging and discharges The ME0 chamber and electronics designs follow the GE1/1 design very closely => We know how to build these detectors Main design constraints are from tight spaces and limited access in the muon endcap R&D is being done to slim down chambers a bit ME0 detector production is anticipated to follow directly on heel of GE1/1 and GE2/1 production 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 33 M E0 Thank you! 6/28/2016

M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 34 M E0 BACKUP 6/28/2016 M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 35 Performance - big picture ME0 Performance Parameter Baseline requirement Rate capability Trigger time resolution Additional requirement (option) GE2/1

M E0 RE3-4/1 3-GEM FTM 3-GEM RWELL Std. RPC iRPC MRPC 2 kHz n/a n/a ok ok ok ok

ok 90 kHz (SF3) ok ok n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a < 8ns ok ok ok ok n/a n/a n/a

< 2ns no ok n/a n/a ok ok ok no may be n/a n/a no no ok < 100 ps Trigger

Bending angle with with with CSCs with resolution < 0.3mrad ok ok ok ok n/a n/a n/a Reconstruction spatial resolution 400 m ok ok ok ok

n/a n/a n/a spatial resolution 0.8 1.7 mm n/a n/a n/a n/a ok ok ok ok ok ok ok no

no no Operation 6/28/2016 eco-friendly gas M. Hohlmann, ME0 Baseline Detector Design, Comp. Review Phase 2 Muon Upgrade, CERN 36

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