FRPA "Green Book" Principles (1989)

FRPA "Green Book" Principles (1989)

Region II-III Reforestation Review August 11, 2016 Purpose To review and update the Forest Resources & Practices Act reforestation standards for Interior (III) and Southcentral Alaska (II) To identify high priority research needs for reforestation Why now? Original focus on Coastal Alaska (1993) Experience New information Changing climate

References published pre- and post-FRPA regulations Pre-1993; 20.00% S&TC BOF charge (Nov. 2013) Compile & synthesize info Review standards & recommend changes where appropriate ID research needs

Implementation Group BOF review (Aug. 2016) Review recommendations Advise on practical implementation and consider economics Draft regulation changes where needed Prioritize research needs Implementation BOF review (Nov. 2015)

BOF charg e S&TC Implementation Group BOF revie w BOF revie w Phase III: Implementation Actions

Regulations DPO forms Implementation fieldbook Training Research and coop planning: Winter meeting Basis for recommendations: S&TC and Implementation Group reviews and findings Science & Technical Committee Roger Burnside, DNR-DOF (retired) Jim Durst, ADF&G-Habitat, co-chair Marty Freeman, DNR-DOF,

co-chair Nancy Fresco, UAF-SNAP Julie Hagelin, ADF&GWildlife Cons. Doug Hanson, DNR-DOF Teresa Hollingsworth, UAF/USFS-BECRU Glenn Juday, UAF Nick Lisuzzo, USFS-S&PF Mitch Michaud, USFS-Chugach NF [ex-NRCS] Tom Paragi, ADF&G- Wildlife Cons. Will Putman, Tanana Chiefs Conf. Hans Rinke/John Winters, DNRDOF Amanda Robertson, USFWS Trish Wurtz, USFS-S&PF John Yarie, UAF Brian Young, Landmark Coll. [DOF/USFS]

Implementation Group Rod Arno, AK Outdoor Council Joe Bovee, Ahtna Inc. Theo DeLaca, Future Forests Clare Doig, Forest & Land Mgmt. Inc. Jeremy Douse, Tanana Chiefs Conference Jim Durst, ADF&G-Habitat Marty Freeman, DNRForestry Rick Jandreau, DNR-Forestry Tim Kalke, Sustainable Energy for Galena Kevin Meany, DNR-Forestry Amy OConnor, AK Center for the Environment Tom Paragi, ADF&G-Wildlife Jeff Selinger, ADF&GWildlife

Paul Slenkamp, Mental Health Trust Mark Stahl, Denali Log & Lumber Wade Wahrenbrock, Kenai Peninsula Borough Joe Young, Youngs Timber, Inc. Literature review - Bibliography Number of sources by decade (n = 511) Number of sources by area 189 192 200 100 0 67 40

10 2 1 3 6 1 0 0 Number of sources by species Number of sources by topic 250 250 200 200 150 150

100 100 50 50 0 0 Birch Aspen BP/C WS BS

Pine Larch Other l ra vics ods oils Fire life e n S i l th /S ild e i te Ge W M S g nt te es

iv ma e lin me s v a Cl i o d e ss In M ss A I& D Background findings: Key concepts Continued seedling recruitment Factors predicting likely natural regeneration success Seed bed conditions Minimal soil disturbance in areas of vegetative reproduction Seed source availability Low risk of vegetative competition (esp. grass)

Low herbivory pressure Not spruce beetle infested, not Tomentosus root rot Key concepts, cont. Southern seed sources successful; diversity provides resilience for climate change Patchiness occurs in natural stands; some patchiness is beneficial for wildlife Harvest and site prep planning can increase positive/decrease negative interactions between wildlife and regeneration; keeping some coarse woody debris/snags is key; keeping down green conifer slash Climate change can affect regeneration success; effects depend on site specific as well as regional conditions Invasives not impeding regeneration yet; Flexibility will be needed to respond

to climate change www.sitnew Discussion and Outreach S&TC: 11 meetings, April 2014-Oct. 2015, incl. 16 scientific presentations. IG: 4 meetings, April-May 2016 Technical experts: 48 forest researchers and managers in AK and Canada Mailing list: 396 organizations, forest owners, Native corporations, local governments, businesses, legislators, agencies, individuals Discussion and Outreach Minutes, findings, and recommendations mailed to lists Technical experts invited to scientific presentations

All meetings open Comments reviewed and discussed with S&TC and IG NGOs Other (Canadian agencies) Federal agencies Individuals TVSFCAC/BOF/For. State agencies & trust land Stew. Council managers Businesses Municipalities/ community councils State legislators

Native Universities corporations/ councils Recommendations Combined S&TC and IG No change needed C3am No statutory changes needed There are no recommended changes to the regulations on Applicability (11 AAC 95.190) Land use conversions (AS 41.17.110, 11 AAC 95.200. 11 AAC 95.375(b), 11 AAC 95.900(13) Clearing of spruce (11 AAC 95.195) Harvest unit planning and design (11 AAC 95.340) Material extraction and disposal sites (11 AAC 95.325(d)(1)) Stocking numbers (11 AAC 95.375(b)(4) and (d)(2) and (3) Extensions (.375(e)) Vegetative reproduction (.380(b)) Regeneration survey review (.385 (b))

Exemption allowance for dead and dying stands (.375(b)(2), (h)) Site preparation Definitions C22 The thresholds for applicability in the definitions of commercial operation and commercial timber harvest use boardfoot measurements that dont match harvest that are not focused on sawtimber. Add conversion factors to the Implementation Handbook (purple book) for cubic feet, cords, and tonnage. Implementing Best Management Practices for Timber Harvest Operations June 2011 DIVISION OF FORESTRY DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

PLEASE NOTE: This booklet is a work in progress. If you have any questions about sections in the booklet, please contact rick rogers, division of forestry: Phone: 907-269-8473; email: r Rick will find answers to your questions, and keep a list of edits and clarifications that need to made in the future. By contacting him with questions, future revisions will make this booklet a more useful document. Thanks!! Approximate equivalents Thres hRegion hold Cuni Cord MCF Bone dry tons Green tons in ts s MBF II

10 3.5 35 40 III 30 8 80 100 White spruce 40 Birch 55

Aspen 40 Balsam poplar 40 White spruce 95 Birch 130 Aspen 95 Balsam poplar 100 White spruce 55 Birch -85 Aspen 70 Balsam poplar -60 White spruce 140 Birch - 205 Aspen 175 Balsam poplar -150

Conversion notes green weight Green weights vary widely depending on moisture content, and moisture content varies with species, season of harvest, and site conditions. These are rules of thumb Stocking standard for residuals The IG recommends that the stocking standard chart in .375(b)(4) be corrected to close the gap between size classes: Average DBH of Remaining Stand Inches Greater than or equal to 9 (saw timber) 6 to 8 (pole timber) Minimum Stocking Standard (trees

per acre) 120 1 to 5 (sapling) 200 170 Stocking distribution C8am Given information on continued recruitment beyond the current deadlines for reforestation, requiring reforestation on 90% of the harvest area within 5-7 years is too stringent. Reforestation on 80% of the harvest area is recommended as a more appropriate minimum target based on field experience and the time frame for regeneration surveys defined in the regulations. Time extensions for achieving this standard may be considered under the existing

procedures for extension in .375(e). (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.375 (d)(4). no more than 10 20 percent of the harvest area or contiguous areas may be below the stocking levels as Stocking distribution C6am The stocking standard in .375(d)(4) should allow flexibility to reflect natural variation in stocking distribution prior to harvest. If the landowner plans to request a variation from this standard, pre-existing patchy conditions within harvest units should be documented in the DPO. (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.375 Reforestation

requirement. (c) In areas within Region II or III where the natural amount or distribution of stocking of commercial trees is below the minimum standards in (b)(4) before harvest, the division will consider a variation from the stocking levels required in (d) of this section. A request for variation under this section must be submitted through a DPO with documentation of pre-harvest stocking level and distribution. Stocking distribution C6am/C12 DOF should consider site conditions and nonstockable areas when reviewing requests for variation from the stocking distribution standard under 11 AAC 95.375(c). Low stocking may reflect both long-term site conditions and conditions that could be remedied by forest management actions. The target is to achieve a regenerated stand that

is similar to or more fully stocked than the stand that existed prior to the harvest. (KYES) 11 AAC 95.235. ((e)-new) In evaluating a request for a variation to reforestation Natural regen and DPOs C1am DPOs need more in-depth information where natural regeneration is the planned reforestation method. Information provided should address the indicators of likely natural regeneration success or failure in F14am and information on planned or completed site preparation or supplemental planting. DPO worksheet C (RII and III) (K-YES)

Seed bed conditions Minimal soil disturbance in areas of vegetative reproduction Seed source availability Risk of vegetative competition is low (esp. grass) Not spruce beetle infested Not Tomentosus root rot Risk of herbivory See handout of DPO checklist DPO REFORESTATION COMMITMENT - REGENERATION METHOD [ ] Landowner will rely on natural regeneration of the site. Please provide known information on the following indicators of suitability for natural regeneration. Where boxes are checked no, please explain. Yes No N/A Unknown Seedbed and soil conditions suitable

[] [] [] [] Moss layers are shallow (<4) or absent [] [] [] [] Where birch or spruce regeneration is targeted, exposed mineral soil will exist on at least 25% of the harvest area and is well-distributed across the unit [] [] [] [] Where aspen regeneration from suckering is targeted, root damage will be minimal and soil exposure will encourage warming Seed/vegetative reproduction sources available [] [] []

[] Exposure to prevailing winds, if known [] [] [] [] Adequate seed trees exist within 3 tree heights of the reforestation site for spruce or within 2 tree heights for birch [] [] [] [] Where spruce regeneration is targeted, large seed crop in year prior to harvest or current year [] [] [] [] Where vegetative reproduction is targeted the harvest area contains sufficient, well-distributed birch, aspen, poplar, cottonwood, red alder, or other species known to revegetate vegetatively as approved by DOF. Competition and infestation risk [] []

[] [] Calamagrostis (bluejoint grass) is not visually evident. If Calamagrostis is visually evident, describe abundance and distribution. [] [] [] [] Equisetum (horsetail) is present prior to harvest [] [] [] [] The site is not currently subject to intense herbivory due to peaks in the hare cycle, dense moose populations, or scarcity of browse in the surrounding landscape. [] [] [] [] Existing stands are not infested with bark beetles (Dendroctonus or Ips) []

[] [] [] Where spruce regeneration is targeted, harvest areas are free of known incidence of Onnia tomentosus root rot. Note: If likely competition or other factors indicate challenges for natural reforestation, prompt reforestation through site preparation and/or artificial regeneration is recommended to ensure success and minimize costs. [ ] Landowner requests an extended period for natural regeneration under 11 AAC 95.XXX DPOs, cont. Supplement C (IIIII) IG: allow other species with DOF approval Tree species considered by DOF for stocking purposes include Sitka spruce, white spruce, Lutz spruce, aspen, balsam poplar, western black cottonwood, and paper birch or other commercial species approved by the

Division AKs largest larch (2002) 75 tall, 16.5 DBH at 50 yrs. Wasilla. From John Alden DPOs cont. IG: Add checkbox for season of harvesting DPO Harvest & Silvicultural Characteristics FOR REGION II OR III: [ ] Winter harvest only [ ] Non-winter harvest only [ ] All-season harvest DPOs and FLUPs The information required in the DPO, Reforestation Commitment, and Supplement C should also be

included in FLUPs for state timber sales. State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry Region III Delta Forest Land Use Plan Mississippi Fire Salvage #1 NC-1510-D February 24, 2014 Natural Regen and DPOs: Training C7 Use of the indicators in F14am to prepare and review DPOs and

requests for variations will require training for Division of Forestry staff, landowners, and operators. Training (K-YES) Natural regeneration C23 Clarify that 11 AAC 95.380(a) applies to natural regeneration from seed. (Section .380(b) applies to vegetation reproduction.) (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.380. (a) If a forest landowner in Region II or III intends to rely on natural regeneration from seed for reforestation, the forest landowner shall ensure a seed source of well-formed, vigorous trees of commercial tree species. Natural regeneration C5am Where natural regeneration is the selected method of reforestation, based on

information in the DPO, DOF may allow a period of up to 12 years for natural regeneration in stands where the indicators show a high likelihood of regeneration success within that period. 11 AAC 95.375(d)(new ) In Region II or Region III, the division may allow a period of up to 12 years for natural regeneration where site conditions indicate a high likelihood of regeneration success within Natural regen. C5am cont. A 12-year period would typically encompass at least one excellent white or Lutz spruce seed crop in RIIIII, and one or two smaller, but adequate spruce seed crops, as well as multiple hardwood seed crops. This would also provide enough time for sufficient hardwood stems to escape browsing in

the absence of intense browse Natural regeneration C5am/10am Where a 12-year period is allowed for natural regeneration Require a regeneration report after 5 years to ensure that the stand is on a trajectory that is likely to be successful. If the indicators no longer support an extended period for natural regeneration, corrective measures may be required. IG: Allow other forms of 11 AAC 95.385. (a) A forest landowner in Region II or III shall conduct a regeneration survey and file a regeneration report with the DOF. [] A regeneration survey or alternative documentation

must be conducted in a manner acceptable to DOF. In an area reforested by natural regeneration, planting, or artificial seeding, a regeneration report shall be submitted within [] 2) 7 yrs after timber harvest in Region II or III. If the period for natural regeneration is extended to 12 years under 11 AAC 95.375(d)(new), a regeneration report must be submitted a) within 5 yrs after the timber harvest to determine whether the reforestation requirements are likely to be met, and b) within 12 yrs after the timber harvest to document that the standards have been met. If either report or field verification shows Artificial regeneration C13am Natural and artificial regeneration can both be beneficial in achieving reforestation goals. When artificial regeneration is chosen, given changing climate conditions, sound options include:

1) Using seed/seedlings of native species from a similar latitude, climatic area, and elevation, 2) Using seed/seedlings of native species from similar conditions in a mix with seed/seedlings from up to 10 latitude south of the planting site. Seeds from farther south or other locations may be used if they have been demonstrated to be successful. (F19, F21) (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.375. (f) Unless otherwise authorized by the division, seeds used for reforestation must be (1) from a similar latitude, climatic area, and elevation as the harvested area, or (2) a mix of seed for native species from similar conditions with seed from up to 10 latitude south of the planting site. Seeds from other locations may be used if they have been

demonstrated to be successful and are approved by the Division. Artificial regeneration C13am, cont. 3) Including species that have been demonstrated to naturalize in Alaska without becoming invasive, including lodgepole pine and Siberian larch. Purple book 4) Providing for systematic evaluation of operational-scale assisted migration trials both within and among species. Purple book (11 AAC 95.235(c) allows for scientific experiments) Assisted migration trial (K-YES)

Artificial regeneration C14 Known invasive species, including species rated higher than 50 on the Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC) list of invasive species should not be planted. For example, bird cherry (Prunus padus, rated 74) should not be planted as it has been documented to be harmful to native ecosystems. (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.375 (new) Known invasive tree species shall not be planted. Use purple book to establish AKEPIC rating >50 as the measure Site preparation C16 Mechanical site preparation should avoid driving heavy equipment over known den sites greater than 12 in diameter (e.g., dens for fox, wolves, and bears). Education

and voluntary cooperation with private landowners under AS 41.17.910 (Wildlife Habitat on Private Land); FLUPs/contracts (K-YES) John Winters, DOF Exemption methods C9am New technologies such as satellite imagery, aerial imagery, or lidar in combination with hyperspectral scanning offer additional options for assessing areas of dead and dying trees. Consider methods of survey other than the method listed in .375(g) and (h) that offer adequate review of requests for reforestation exemptions under those sections. (K-YES) 11 AAC 95.375. (g) To apply for an exemption from reforestation requirements

under (b)(2) or (c) of this section, a landowner must request an exemption in the reforestation section of a detailed plan of operations under 11 AAC 95.220(10) or a change in operations under 11 AAC 95.230 and must demonstrate that the affected stand is significantly composed of insect and disease-killed, fire killed, wind thrown, or fatally damaged trees. [] [THE DIVISION MAY ACCEPT] Other documentation or field evidence approved by the division may be used in lieu of sampling [IN AREAS WHERE Invasive species C17 IG All tree seeds or seedlings imported into AK from outside the state should be certified free of pests, diseases, and noxious weeds. DOF and DAg should coordinate to implement this recommendation; options include existing phytosanitary certificates

(e.g., for imports from Canada), state certifications (e.g., OR shipping certificates), or certificates from nurseries that seeds or seedlings are free of pests, diseases, Invasive species C18 Equipment used for scarification or planting can introduce invasive species to harvested areas. The goal is to prevent introduction of species that could inhibit reforestation; once a species is established eradication is more difficult. (K-YES) Invasive species C18 IG Encourage voluntary use of the following guidance: Scout for invasive plants before performing work in an area.

ID known locations of invasive plants, report new locations, and make use of local knowledge and groups if available. Avoid working in areas with invasive plants, and work from areas without to areas with invasive plants if that is not possible. Time operations to prevent/reduce seed production or dispersal. Revegetate with native, local, and/or noninvasive species. Use certified weed-free materials, incl. seed mixes, gravel, topsoil, hay/straw, erosion control Invasive species C19 Training The agencies should provide information and training about known invasive species, best practices to prevent their spread, and where known, safe locations for

washing vehicles. (K-YES) Other Region II-III training needs C11 Emphasize the importance of capturing and synthesizing institutional knowledge on the role of scientific information in developing the FRPA and regulations, identifying research priorities, and exercising professional discretion in applying the standards. Conveying the reasons for developing the standards to agency staff, landowners, and operators is particularly important in the context of losses of experienced staff. Compile and document staff knowledge, train new employees, and develop, make available, Kodiak applicability Those recommendations that are likely to be

applicable to the Kodiak-Afognak area are noted by K-YES. The notes on Kodiak applicability are not based on the same extensive review as that conducted for Regions II-III. Review recommendations with stakeholders in the Kodiak-Afognak area before deciding whether these recommendations apply to that area. Natural Regeneration Kodiak This section is less applicable to Kodiak-Afognak. Natural regeneration is generally unsuitable because of 1) widespread competition from grass, salmonberry, and other vegetation, and seedling losses to herbivores 2) single-species stands of Sitka spruce, e.g., there are no hardwood pioneer species to

regenerate from abundant seed 3) at present, harvesting is on an industrial scale with extensive clearcuts that are better suited to artificial regeneration 4) Replanting following likely failure of natural regeneration is costly Next steps Next Steps If endorsed by the Board, Adopt the proposed regulatory changes Incorporate additions to the purple book Incorporate changes into DPO forms and FLUPs Develop and provide training Implementing Best Management

Practices for Timber Harvest Operations June 2011 DIVISION OF FORESTRY DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PLEASE NOTE: This booklet is a work in progress. If you have any questions about sections in the booklet, please contact rick rogers, division of forestry: Phone: 907-269-8473; email: r Rick will find answers to your questions, and keep a list of edits and clarifications that need to made in the future. By contacting him with questions, future revisions will make this booklet a more useful document. Thanks!! STATE OF ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

DIVISION OF FORESTRY NOTICE OF OPERATIONS DETAILED PLAN OF OPERATIONS SUMMARY xxxxxxxxxxxx_____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______ Mmmmmmm______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ________ XXXXXXXXXXX____________________________________________ ___ xxxxxx____________________________________________________ ___bbbbbbbb______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ _________qqqqqqqqqqqqqqq______________________________ ____________________________________________________________ __________________wwwww_________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ __________________________ State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry Region III Delta Forest Land Use Plan Mississippi Fire Salvage #1 NC-1510-D February 24, 2014 Agency AGO Attorney reviews draft & DOL opens file

Public notice & public comment (incl. BOF) Gov. Office review DOF sends to DOL DNR revises/ adopts regs AGO agency attorney legal review

AGO regulations attorney legal review Lt. Gov. reviews & files Effective in 30 days Published in AAC & sent to ARRC Planning & draft regs S&TC, IG, & BOF Admin.

Reg. Review Comm. review ALASKA REGULATIONS ADOPTION PROCESS Next Board Meeting Review research priorities and cooperative planning recommendations QUESTIONS ???

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