Food Animal Veterinarian Presentation - Iowa State University

Food Animal Veterinarian Presentation - Iowa State University

Bioterrorism Awareness: Protection of Human and Animal Health Food animal producers Why Are We Here? September 11, 2001 changed many things Worst terrorist act in U.S. history More than 3,000 presumed dead

Occurred on American soil Increased sense of vulnerability Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Biological Attack Bioterrorism attacks of 2001 Anthrax in postal system 22 cases 5 deaths

U.S. public health realm changed forever Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Overview Bioterrorism Zoonoses and bioterrorism Disease control and biosecurity

U.S. Government agencies involved Bioterrorism agents/diseases Your role and responsibility Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Terrorism Agroterrorism Biological, chemical or radiological agents targeting agriculture or its components Livestock Food supply Crops

Industry Workers Bioterrorism Biological agents targeting humans, animals, or plants Other Conventional, radiological, nuclear, chemical, cyber Typically direct human targeting

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Characteristics of a Biological Attack Difficult to detect release Dissemination may cover large area Possible secondary spread Recognition of agent may be delayed days to weeks Difficulties in catching perpetrator

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Infectious Disease Outbreak Exposure Symptoms No. Affected Seek Care Time (Days) Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Clues Suggesting Biological Agent Release

Clustering of morbidity or mortality Temporally or geographically Large numbers of animals and/or people Atypical symptoms Normally healthy people affected Unusual symptoms for area Unusual age distribution Disease occurring outside typical season Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Many Agents are Zoonotic Zoonotic means a disease transmitted from animals to humans Disease may be seen in animals before humans Animals are sentinels Pets, livestock, wildlife Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa

State University 2005 Factors That Promote Transmission of Zoonoses Frequent contact with domestic or wild animals Overlap with wildlife habitat Intensive livestock production Poor animal sanitation Poor personal hygiene Poor animal health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Routes of Transmission Direct contact Gel, liquid, powder Scratches Droplet spray onto mucous membranes Indirect: Ingestion, injection Contaminated food, water Vector

Aerosol Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Disease Control: Client Education Disinfect/clean up areas contaminated with animal waste Livestock,

pets, wildlife, rodents Basic hygiene Wash hands Child supervision Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Zoonoses Control

Proper pet selection Use caution at petting zoos Cook food properly Control strays Visit and communicate with physician and veterinarian Follow guidelines for immunocompromised people Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Biosecurity Education for the Producer Develop and implement a biosecurity plan

Train employees to help maintain the plan Post signs restricting access to areas of the farm and control traffic flow Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Biosecurity Education for the Producer

Regulate visitors Keep visitors sanitary Clean clothing, boots Disposable plastic covers shoe/boot Implement insect, bird and animal control Secure water, feed, and nutrient sources Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa

State University 2005 Biosecurity Education for the Producer Maintain healthy herd Vaccinations Proper hygiene for animals and handlers Purchase from reputable sources Quarantine newly purchased animals

Separate sick animals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 U.S. Agencies Dealing with terrorism Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act of 2002 June 12, 2002 Improve ability of the U.S. to prevent, prepare for, and respond to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies $4.3 billion to various federal, state and local agencies

Upgrade facilities, enhance security, etc Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Established January, 2003 Mission Prevent, protect, and respond to acts of terrorism on U.S. soil

Established four policy directorates Responsibilities for coordinating HHS and USDA Guard borders and airports, coordinate the response for future emergencies, analyze threats and intelligence, protect our critical infrastructure Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

CDC's Mission Promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury and disability Preparing for bioterrorism since 1998 One of first agencies to respond to anthrax incidents of 2001 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Strategic National Stockpile

12-hour Push Package Complete package of medical materials Vendor Managed Inventory Tailored to suspected agents Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Insert Your States Info Here Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Preparing Iowa Iowas Homeland Security Administered by Iowa Emergency Management Division Works with public and private

partners www.iowahomeland security.org Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Preparing Iowa Iowa Department of Public Health www.idph.state.ia.us/odedp Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship Highly infectious animal disease program IRVIN: Iowa Rapid Veterinary Information

Network CFSPH training veterinarians to educate others Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Category ABC Agent Overview Classification Prepared by the CDCs Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Office Category A: Highest priority Category B: Second highest priority

Category C: Third highest priority Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Weaponization of Agents Alter characteristics of an agent, allowing it to cause a more serious disease Enhance transmission Increase virulence Resistant to antibiotics Evade vaccine protection

Alter clinical signs Harder to diagnose Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Note to presenter As time allows select diseases you would like to review. If you have limited time you should focus on the Category A agents. The disease coverage is brief. If you would like more information on a disease, refer to the fact sheet or to the disease specific presentation.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Category A : Agents/Diseases Anthrax Botulism Plague Smallpox Tularemia Viral hemorrhagic fevers

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Anthrax: The Agent Bacteria: Bacillus anthracis Forms spores Human disease Skin Intestinal Inhalation Animal disease Spreads

through the body Rapid death Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Anthrax: The Response Vaccine Humans Animals Antibiotics Treatment Prevention

Hardy in environment Difficult to disinfect Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Botulism: The Agent Clostridium botulinum Gram pos, spore-forming bacteria 7 different neurotoxins Types

A-G Clinical signs Flaccid paralysis Pigs, dogs and cats fairly resistant Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Botulism: The Response Toxoids for high risk people Antitoxin available

Case-by-case basis Spores destroyed by moist heat Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Plague: The Agent Yersinia pestis Gram

neg, transmitted by fleabites, aerosol, direct contact Symptoms: Humans Bubonic, septicemic, pneumonic Symptoms: Animals Cat: Similar to human Dogs, livestock: Somewhat resistant

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Plague: The Response Antibiotics generally effective if given early Killed vaccine available Isolation of sick individuals Susceptible to a number of common disinfectants Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Smallpox: The Agent

Variola virus Eradicated from the world in 1977 Narrow host range: Humans only Transmission: Person-to-person, contaminated items Clinical signs Flu-like, progressive skin eruptions Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Smallpox: The Response

No specific treatment Vaccine has side effects Vaccination of health care personnel Isolation of infected individuals Disinfection of clothing etc. with steam, fire or bleach Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Tularemia: The Agent Francisella tularensis

Transmitted by ingestion, inhalation, vectors, direct contact through skin Six clinical forms in humans Glandular Ulceroglandular Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Tularemia: The Agent Sheep, young pigs, horses, dogs, cats Sudden

fever, lethargy, stiffness, prostration and death Wildlife Usually find dead Rabbits behave strangely Cattle, older pigs resistant Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Tularemia: The Response Person-to-person transmission not documented

Antibiotics effective if early or preventative Vaccine For high risk individuals Unknown effectiveness against inhalation tularemia Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: The Agents Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo Human clinical presentation

Early: Fever, fatigue Severe: Bleed from internal organs, body orifices Progression to shock, seizures Vincent Massey Animals: Only non-human primates susceptible Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

VHF: The Response Intensive supportive care Antiviral medications have shown some efficacy Susceptible to various disinfectants Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Category B: Agents/Diseases

Brucellosis Glanders Melioidosis Psittacosis Q Fever Typhus fever Viral encephalitis Toxins Food Safety Threats

Water Safety Threats Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Brucellosis: The Agent Bacteria: Brucella spp. Transmission by Ingestion Inhalation Direct contact

Clinical signs Humans: Cyclic fever and flu-like symptoms Animals: Reproductive signs Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Brucellosis: The Response Long term antibiotics generally effective

Vaccinate calves, no human vaccine Eliminate reservoir Standard precaution to avoid exposure Thorough disinfection Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Glanders: The Agent Bacteria: Burkholderia mallei Transmission by ingestion, inhalation or direct contact Animal-to-human

transmission is inefficient Clinical signs Humans & horses: Cutaneous & pulmonary lesions, rapidly fatal illness Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Glanders: The Response No vaccine Antibiotic therapy likely effective

Destroyed by various chemicals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Melioidosis: The Agent Bacteria: Burkholderia pseudomallei Transmission: Contact, ingestion, inhalation Clinical signs: Humans, sheep, goats and pigs No symptoms to pneumonia,

lung and wound abscesses Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Melioidosis: The Response Long-term, multiple antibiotics effective Vaccine not available in U.S. Easily destroyed by disinfectants Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Psittacosis: The Agent

Bacteria: Chlamydophila psittaci Occurs worldwide Reportable in U.S. Clinical disease Humans and birds: Ranges from no symptoms to systemic illness with severe pneumonia Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Psittacosis: The Response Antibiotics

generally effective Decontamination possible with most disinfectants Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Q Fever: The Agent Bacteria: Coxiella burnetii Transmission: inhalation, contact, ingestion, ticks Disease symptoms

direct Humans: Acute: Flu-like, pneumonia, liver disease Chronic: Heart complications, bone inflammation Animals: Most have no signs Sheep, cattle and goats: Abortions Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Q Fever: The Response Antibiotic therapy may limit the disease Vaccine developed, not available in U.S. Some disinfectants are effective Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Typhus Fever: The Agent Bacteria: Rickettsia prowazekii

Endemic in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and parts of Africa Transmitted in feces of human body louse Clinical signs: Humans J. Kalisch Fever, headache, red blotches, and a reddot rash Not seen in domestic animals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Typhus Fever: The Response Antibiotics are generally effective Vaccine, not commercially available Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Viral Encephalitis: The Agent Viruses causing EEE, WEE, and VEE Transmitted via mosquito Clinical signs Birds do not become ill but are carriers; act as sentinels

Humans, horses, donkeys, mules: Often no signs to flu-like illness Brain inflammation in some patients Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Viral Encephalitis: The Response Supportive care

Vaccine Virus cannot live in environment Equine Human: high risk Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Toxins: The Agents Staphylococcal

enterotoxin B (SEB) Ricin toxin from castor plant Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 SEB: The Agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) A common cause of food poisoning Clinical signs: Humans Fever,

chills, headache, aches Non-productive cough if inhaled GI signs if ingested Animals: Likely similar to human Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Ricin: The Agent Ricin toxin from bean of castor plant Available worldwide Clinical signs Acute

onset of fever, chest tightness, cough, dyspnea, nausea Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Epsilon Toxin: The Agent Clostridium perfringens type B and D Increases intestinal and vascular permeability, liver and neurological damage Clinical signs Calves: Diarrhea, abdominal pain,

listlessness, neurologic Sheep, goats: Watery to bloody diarrhea, neurologic Humans: Little information Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Toxins: The Response Supportive care No vaccines currently available for SEB or ricin Vaccines for animals for clostridial disease Toxins are inactivated with common disinfectants Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa

State University 2005 Food Safety Threats Campylobacter species Salmonella species E. coli 0157:H7 Viruses, parasites, chemicals, toxins Ingestion of contaminated food Gastrointestinal upset

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Food Safety Threats: The Response Constant vigilance to improve food safety Food irradiation at processing plants Wash hands and utensils frequently Proper cooking temperature and storage Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Water Safety Threats 53% of US drinking water is from ground water Cryptosporidium parvum- protozoa Vibrio choleraebacteria Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Cryptosporidium: The Agent Cryptosporidium parvum- protozoa Transmission: Inhalation, ingestion Clinical signs: Humans, calves, others

Acute gastroenteritis Dogs, cats, horses, pigs: Resistant Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Vibrio cholerae: The Agent Vibrio cholerae- bacteria Transmission: fecal-oral, contaminated shellfish Clinical signs: humans

Acute, mild diarrhea 5% severe disease Animals are resistant to disease Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Water Safety: Public Health Significance Cryptosporidum parvum

1993: Municipal water supply contaminated in Milwaukee 40,000 ill 1997: Decorative water fountain at the Minnesota Zoo 369 cases Mostly young children Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Water Safety Threats: The Response

Government has laws to protect our water supply Treatment facilities are equipped and will likely inactivate most organisms Chlorination, filtration, ozone Dilution factor Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Category C

Nipah virus Hantavirus Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Nipah Virus: The Agent Fruit bats Clinical signs Humans: Brain inflammation Pigs: Respiratory; neurological Dogs and cats: Distemper

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Nipah Virus: The Response Avoid contact with all infected animals and fluids Vaccine being researched Call authorities immediately Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Hantavirus: The Agent Bunyaviridae family Asymptomatic reservoir: Rodents

Transmission: Inhalation, ingestion, direct contact Human clinical signs Fever, myalgia, headache Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Not seen in domestic animals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Hantavirus: The Response Supportive care

Limit exposure to rodent excrement Virus is deactivated with bleach Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Other Important Diseases

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Rift Valley Fever Hendra Virus West Nile Virus Foot and Mouth Disease Monkeypox Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: The Agent Prions Proteinaceous

infectious particles Mutated proteins Very long incubation period Neurological signs in all species No treatment available Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad cow disease Incubation: 2 to 8 years 1995, United Kingdom

vCJD People exposed to BSE Before bovine offal ban in 1989 Active U.S. surveillance since 1990 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 TSE: The Response

Very resistant Heat, sterilization and disinfectants Early identification not possible Lack of host immune response Long incubation period No effective treatment or vaccine Surveillance program Import restrictions

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Rift Valley Fever: The Agent Virus Transmission: mosquito, inhalation, contact with infected body fluids Clinical signs Humans: Flu-like, fever, headache

Severe disease: Vision complications, bleeding with fever Animals: Abortions, death in newborns Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Rift Valley Fever: The Response Vaccinate ruminants in endemic areas Control mosquitoes Avoid contact with

infected tissues & blood Wear protective clothing No person-to-person transmission Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Hendra Virus: The Agent Newly discovered

Fruit bats Transmission: Urine, body fluids Incubation: 6-18 days Humans Australia Flu-like illness, respiratory failure

Horses, cats Acute respiratory signs, nasal discharge, fever, encephalitis, sudden death Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Hendra Virus: The Response Little is known about disease Potentially serious consequences High death rate Lack of treatment

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 West Nile Virus: The Agent Flavivirus Transmission Mosquitoes: Culex species Blood transfusion, organ donation, breast feeding

Animals: Horses, birds, mammals and reptiles Humans Duration: 3-6 days 80% have no signs 20% develop West Nile Fever Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 West Nile Virus: Public Health Significance Human illness in U.S. in 2003 9,100

cases, 222 deaths Horses illness in U.S. in 2003 4,554 cases 40% of ill result in death Method of introduction to U.S. unknown *data current as of 1/30/04 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Spread of WNV in the U.S.:

1999-2002 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 West Nile Virus: The Response Treatment: Supportive care Vaccine available for horses, not humans Source elimination

Mosquito larval habitats Personal protection Reduce time outdoors Wear long pants and sleeves Use mosquito repellent Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Foot and Mouth Disease: FMD

Picornavirus Transmission: Direct contact, aerosol, fomites Species: Cloven-hooved animals (not horses) Signs: Fever, vesicles, salivation, lameness Extremely rare, mild symptoms in people Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 FMD: Agroterrorism Threat Most important livestock disease in the world U.S. agriculture as a target

One sixth of the U.S. domestic product is tied to agriculture Immunologically naive population Vulnerabilities Increased travel, poor biosecurity Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 FMD: The Response USDA upgrading safeguarding measures Strict biosecurity

Notify authorities immediately Response and recovery plans Quarantine Depopulation Disinfection Vaccination complex decision Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Monkeypox: The Agent

Orthopoxvirus, related to smallpox Transmission Reservoir may be African squirrel Bites, aerosol, direct contact Zoonotic, animal-to-animal, person-to-person Animals: Fever, rash, pustules, red eyes Humans: Flu-like, rash, pustules, swollen lymph nodes

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Monkeypox: Public Health Significance 2003 U.S. Outbreak Zoonotic disease 6 Midwestern states Animal illness Suspect cases: 93 Confirmed cases: 10

Human illness Suspect cases: 72 Confirmed cases: 37 All had contact with infected prairie dogs Potential bioweapon Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

Monkeypox: The Response Treatment: Supportive care Smallpox vaccination Moderately protective (85% of cases) 30 individuals in 2003, no adverse events Infection Control EPA registered detergent disinfectant 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

Embargo Euthanasia of animals Quarantine for 6 weeks Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Conclusion What to do if bioterrorism is suspected

Stay informed and remain calm Response is event specific Response is everyone's responsibility Follow the advice of public health officials Follow federal and state guidelines Movement restrictions may be necessary Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Contacts Phone numbers to know Local

veterinarian Local physician Public health officials Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Summary Bioterrorism is a real threat Public health infrastructure is being strengthened Many bioterrorism agents are zoonotic Awareness education is an important component of preparedness and protection

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Summary Prevention, recognition and response involves everyone Report any suspicious activity, unexplained behavior or death loss in your herd or flock You play a critical role Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Conclusion

The best prescription, is knowledge. Dr. C. Everett Koop Former U.S. Surgeon General Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005 Acknowledgments Authors: Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM Jamie Snow, DVM Reviewers: Radford G. Davis, DVM, MPH Gayle B. Brown, DVM, PhD Jean Gladon, BS Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

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