Folie 1 - Eskom

Folie 1 - Eskom

Initial Performance History - O&M Lessons Learned Kuno Schallenberg [email protected] +49 6101 55 1886 26 August 2013 Lahmeyer International GmbH Engineering and Consulting Services Energy Division; Business Unit Renewables and Economics Lahmeyer LahmeyerInternational

International2013 2013 Solar Tower Technology Brief facts on the current status: 3 operational projects considered commercial: PS-10 (10 MW) PS-20 (20 MW), and Gemasolar (20 MW) Large commercial projects under construction (e.g. Ivanpah) Some pilot and demonstration experiences around the world (e.g. Solar One, Solar Two, Themis, etc.)

Lahmeyer International 2013 2 Tower Project Focus: Gemasolar (Spain) Source: Torresol Lahmeyer International 2013 3 Gemasolar: Key Data

Source: Torresol Lahmeyer International 2013 4 Gemasolar: Layout Decoupled System Source: Torresol

Lahmeyer International 2013 5 Gemasolar: Plant behaviour (full summer week) Meinel DNI (W/m) Actual DNI (W/m) Heliostats focusing (u) Receiver Power (MWt) Storage Level (%) Gas use (kg/s) Net Output (MWe)

Lahmeyer International 2013 Source: Torresol 6 Gemasolar: Operation - Preliminary Results Plant is still on ramp-up period (2nd operational year) Performance exceeds expectations on clear sky days but is lower than expected on cloudy days Plant can operate continuously 24 hours/day (mainly summer) Fine control of solar field and receiver temperature achieved

Cleanness factor of the solar field exceeds 95% Storage tanks loose around 1C/day in average Water consumption per year rounds 400,000 m Lahmeyer International 2013 7 Gemasolar: Operation Event Frozen Receiver Event: Frozen salts on receiver tubes Cause: operation exceeding boundary conditions (high winds)

Solution: gradual heating of the tubes using the solar field Result: salts were melted and tubes freed Consecuences: no mechanical or structural damages to the receiver Source: Torresol Lahmeyer International 2013 8 Gemasolar: Maintenance

Lahmeyer International 2013 Source: Torresol 9 Gemasolar: Maintenance Key Facts Typical maintenance activities: preventive, predictive and corrective Major emphasis on predictive maintenance, especially on non-conventional equipment (e.g. receiver, salt pumps, etc.) Annual plant inspection (scheduled corrective maintenance) with a duration of 3-4 weeks Turbine has shown no signs of degradation, performing substantially better than in other

CSP plants No perceived degradation on Receiver No special maintenance activities on salt system (no corrosion noted) Exceptions: valves (salt system) and kettle Lahmeyer International 2013 10 Gemasolar: O&M Personnel Operation (on site): Around 20 employees which include supervisors, EHS, process engineers and operators, divided into 5 shifts

Maintenance: Around 30 employees which include supervisors, electromechanical technicians, chemical engineer and cleaning crews Lahmeyer International 2013 11 Gemasolar: O&M Costs 14.80%

7.80% Owner's Costs EHS Costs General Costs Maintenance Costs 29.10% Operation Costs 46.00% 2.30%

Lahmeyer International 2013 12 Trough Technology Brief facts on the current status: Around 3 GW installed worldwide Large commercial projects still announced Almost 30 years of operational track record (SEGS I built on 1984) Relatively mature O&M experience

Lahmeyer International 2013 13 Trough Project Focus: Typical 50 MW installation with TES (Spain) Lahmeyer International 2013 Source: Torresol 14

Trough Case Study: Key Data Lahmeyer International 2013 Source: Torresol 15 Trough Case Study: Typical Plant Layout Source: Torresol Lahmeyer International 2013

16 Trough Case Study: Plant behaviour (clear and cloudy days) Stored Energy Lahmeyer International 2013 Gas Heater Turbine Output Source: Torresol

17 Trough Case Study: O&M Results - Spain Performance results are not similar/homogeneous within the plants installed recently (last 5 years) in Spain Some plants register 15 to 20% higher annual performance compared to expected values Experience from SEGS plants allowed optimization of O&M e.g. high performance, effective maintenance (predictive) and cost reduction Major O&M incidents relate to HTF leakages (e.g. ball joints, flexible hoses), HTF pumps failure, HTF filtration into water/steam cycle, broken absorber tubes There are no major incidents with the operation of the TES reported

Lahmeyer International 2013 18 Conclusions & Lessons learned Operation with molten salt systems as HTF is more delicate on changing weather conditions (e.g. cloud passages) Decoupled systems with TES allow reduction and/or elimination of weather disturbances on the solar field (e.g. cloud passages), allowing a better operation of the turbine No special events detected on the operation of molten salt storage systems O&M cost reductions on existing plants are very unlikely without losing plant performance

Increasing project size or multiproject development might be the only way to reduce O&M costs CSP integration to existing thermal power plants represent a significant reduction on O&M costs for the solar part (e.g. almost no additional labor) Lahmeyer International 2013 19 Thank you for your Attention Questions? Lahmeyer

LahmeyerInternational International2013 2013 20

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