Fire Resistance Rated Truss Assemblies

Fire Resistance Rated Truss Assemblies

Fire Resistance Rated Truss Assemblies Educational Overview Introduction Building codes may require a fire endurance rating for several applications where trusses are used: Floor/ceiling Roof/ceiling

Attic separation Generic fire rated wood truss assembly Introduction Truss protection in fire resistance rated assemblies is covered in the IBC States that requirements shall be based on the results of fullscale tests or combinations of tests or approved calculations

based on such tests that demonstrate fire resistance 704.5 Truss protection. Key Definitions Approved Source: An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses. Fire Resistance: That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under

conditions of use. Fire-Resistance Rating: The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703. Introduction The IBC allows five methods for determining fire resistance ( Section 703.3): 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. Fire-resistance designs documented in sources. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in Section 721. Calculations in accordance with Section 722. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building element, component or assemblies designs having fireresistance ratings as resistance ratings as

determined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11. Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs To qualify as a documented design, testing is performed in accordance with one of the following tests: ASTM E119 Standard Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials

ANSI/UL 263 Fire Resistance Ratings Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Tested assemblies may be specified where a rated assembly is required Assemblies can generally be applied to both floor and roof applications

Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Some sources of documented fire-resistance designs include: Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual (GA-600) Online Manual (read only) Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Underwriters Laboratories:

Fire Resistance Directory Searchable Database Many UL tested designs can also be found in the product literature of companies whose products are certified to be listed in the assemblies Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Other sources of documented fire-resistance

designs include: Warnock Hersey ( Intertek Directory) Factory Mutual PFS Corporation Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs General: The fire resistance rating of listed assemblies applies to the entire

assembly Components are NOT intended to be interchanged between assemblies. Modifications? Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs However, evaluation by comparison of tested

assemblies is permitted by IBC Section 703.3 Method 4. Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Depth/Spacing: Depths given are minimums Minimum depth

Greater depths are allowed Spacings given are maximums Smaller spacings are allowed Maximum spacing Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Insulation: Some assemblies allow

addition of insulation if an additional layer of gypsum is installed at the ceiling. Modifications? Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs However, IBC Section 703.3 Method 4 and Method 5 permit modifications to

assemblies This would include modifications involving insulation Rational design must be provided to the building official Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Use of floor/ceiling designs for roof/ceiling (or reverse): UL BXUV.GuideInfo Section III.19

states: Class A, B or C roof coverings may be used on floors without reducing the fire-resistance rating A nailer of equal thickness to the length of the mechanical fasteners must be added to the flooring Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs Use of floor/ceiling designs for roof/ceiling

(or reverse): The reverse case is not typical Floor/ceiling designs that specify a finish floor cannot be used as roof/ceiling assemblies Method 1: Documented fire-resistance designs However, IBC item 4 or item 5 would allow use of assemblies

tested as floor/ceiling or roof/ ceiling in the other application, even if not specified as such in the listing Rational design must be provided to the building official. Method 2: Prescriptive designs IBC Table 721.1(3), item 21-1.1 describes one prescriptive 1hour rated floor or roof assembly that includes wood trusses: Base layer: 5/8" Type X gyp attached w/1-1/4 Type S or W drywall screws

@ 24 o.c. at right angles to truss/joist Face layer: 5/8" Type X gyp or veneer base attached thru base layer w/17/8 Type S or W drywall screws 12 o.c. at joints and intermediate truss/joist. Type G drywall screws placed 2 back on either side of face layer end joints @ 12 o.c. 1/2" (min) WSP glued & attached w/8d nails at right

angles to truss/joist Max spacing 24 Method 2: Prescriptive designs The National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2010 provides an extensive listing of prescriptive assemblies that include metal plate connected wood trusses in Table A-9.10.3.1.B.

These listings also include sound ratings, so can be very useful to the building designer. Method 3: Calculated designs IBC Section 722.6 addresses fire resistance calculations for wood assemblies The unexposed side membrane is NOT

included in the calculation Fire-exposed side membrane + Framing members + Other (e.g. Insulation) = Fire-resistance rating (minutes)

Method 3: Calculated designs The maximum fireresistance rating allowed using this method is 1-hour. This section includes tables with times assigned to both structural members and membranes. Method 4: Comparison The IBC allows the determination of fire resistance ratings

based on a comparison of building element, component or assembly designs having fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263. Method 4: Comparison Combined with the provisions of IBC Section 104.11 listed at item 5, this allows the building official to approve a design that "complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance,

durability and safety." Method 4: Comparison SBCA has calculated a two hour fire rated MPCWT assembly based on this provision See SBCA SRR 1509-02 for full details Method 4: Comparison

One basis for this type of analysis is Harmathys Ten Rules of Fire Endurance Rating Consult Section 4-13 in the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering for further info Method 5: Alternative materials and methods 104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction

and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

Method 5: Alternative materials and methods This allows for other methods of developing a design by an approved source that complies with the intent of the code and, unless it can be demonstrated not to comply with the code, should be approved by the building official.

Conclusion A Building Designer may submit to a code jurisdiction a fire resistance rated design incorporating metal plate connected wood trusses using any of the five methods allowed by Section 703.3. If it is not a listed design, the Building Designer should submit details regarding how the submitted design was determined and show how it complies with the intent of the building code. References

SBCA Research Report 1509-01 National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) 2012 or 2015, American Wood Council (AWC), Section 16, Fire Design of Wood Members. Analytical methods for determining fire resistance of timber members, Robert White, 2008, included in the SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. Quincy, Mass.; National Fire Protection Association; Bethesda, Md.: Society of Fire Protection Engineers, c2008: pages 4.346-4.366. Guidelines on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies. International Code Council (ICC). National Building Code of Canada, 2010.

References International Building Code (IBC), 2012 and 2015, International Code Council (ICC). BXUV.GuideInfo, Underwriters Laboratory. Gypsum Association Handbook, GA-600, 2012 Fire Resistance Provided by Gypsum Board Membrane Protection, GA-610, 2013 ESR-1338, Gypsum Wall and Ceiling Assemblies and Gypsum Board Interior and Exterior Applications Intertek Directory of Certified Products PFS Corporation Factory Mutual

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