Fertilisers - LT Scotland

Fertilisers - LT Scotland

Starter: This f ormula shows part of a polymer molecule a) Draw the structural f ormula f or the monomer that was used to make this polymer. (1) b)

Write down the f ormula of the monomer that was used to make this polymer. (1) c) Name this monomer. National 5

Chemistry Unit 3 Chemistry in Society Key Area 3 Fertilisers Date Fertilisers Learning Intentions

I know that fertilisers provide the essential elements, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, that are needed for healthy plant growth I can name the catalyst used in the Haber Process I can write the balanced equation for the Haber Process I can name the reactants in the Ostwald process I can work out the percentage composition of a fertiliser Fertilisers Growing plants require nutrients, including

compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. (NPK) These can be found in fertilisers Fertilisers are Fertilisers are substances which restore elements, essential for healthy plant growth, to the

soil. Photosynthesis Plants produce their own glucose during photosynthesis. To be able to photosynthesise efficiently, plants need nutrients from the soil

Nutrients are taken in through the roots so, Nutrients must be soluble in water A Lack of Nutrients affects a plants ability to photosynthesise Lack of Nitrogen 1) Reduced root mass

2) Smaller leaf size 3) Lower leaves turn yellow and die from the tip back Lack of Potassium Yellowing of the leaf edges Lack of Phosphorus Purple coloration on the

underside of the leaves. In severe deficiencies the plant will be stunted, leaves will turn upward and show purpling of the leaves. Types of Fertilisers Growing plants use up nutrients from the soil Fertilisers can be natural or Synthetic

Natural Fertilisers Plant compost Animal manure Lightning

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in the nodules of some plants Nitrogen in Air Lightnin g Ooo aaar Fertilizer !!

Decaying Plant and Animal Waste Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Adding Nitrogen to the Soil Manure and dead plants and animals decay to release nitrates Legumes peas, beans, clover contain bacteria that

fix nitrogen into nitrates Lightning flash combines N2 and O2 to produce NO2 which dissolves in rainwater Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Problem Increasing human population needs more food than natural

fertilisers can provide Artificial Fertilisers These are man-made compounds which contain water soluble compounds These compounds are taken up by the roots of plants The farmer can chose specific fertilisers to replace nutrients that are missing from his soil

Starter: Calculate the percentage of: 1. Oxygen in Al(OH)3 2. Nitrogen in Mg3N2 Ammonia and Nitric Acid Ammonia and nitric acid are important compounds used to produce soluble, nitrogen-containing salts that can be used as fertilisers.

Ammonia is a pungent, clear, colourless gas which dissolves in water to produce an alkaline solution. Ammonia solutions react with acids to form soluble salts. ammonia solution + an acid an ammonium salt + water Activity 10.5 Ammonia Fountain

The Haber Process Ammonia (NH3) is an essential starting point for the production of synthetic fertilisers. Diatomic nitrogen in the air has a triple covalent bond holding the atoms together. This requires a large amount of energy to break, so the direct reaction of nitrogen to hydrogen is not usually possible. The Haber Process overcomes these difficulties.

The Haber Process Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia Ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g) Ammonia 2NH3(l) The double arrow tells us that the reaction is reversible. This is a problem because, as the ammonia is made, it easily breaks down into the reactants nitrogen and hydrogen again. The Haber Process

To make this process economic and efficient, the following conditions apply Temperature A Moderate temperature is used At low temperatures the forward reaction is too slow to be economical. If the temperature is increased, the rate of reaction increases but, as the temperature increases, the backward reaction becomes more dominant.

The Haber Process Pressure A High pressure is used. This increases the yield of ammonia. The Haber Process Catalyst An Iron (Fe) catalyst speeds up the production of ammonia, saving energy costs.

LEARN THIS The Haber Process Condenser This cools the reaction down, turning ammonia into a liquid which is easier to extract. The Haber Process Recycled reactants Unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are returned to the

reaction, saving money. Starter Starter - Answer Learning Intentions and Success Criteria Learning Intentions To learn about the Ostwald process

To learn about percentage composition of fertilisers Success Criteria I can state the reactants and products of the Ostwald process I can calculate the percentage composition of fertilisers Ostwald Process Ammonia is the starting material for the commercial production of nitric acid. (Ostwald

process) The Ostwald process uses ammonia, oxygen and water to produce nitric acid. A platinum catalyst is used in this process. Steps in the Production of Nitric Acid (Ostwald Process) 1. Ammonia + Oxygen nitrogen monoxide 2. Nitrogen monoxide + Oxygen Nitrogen dioxide 3. Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen + water Nitric acid

Percentage Composition of fertilisers It is useful to be able to calculate exactly what proportion of essential nutrients are present in in a fertiliser. The process is exactly the same as calculating the percentage composition of a metal ore.. Learn This Formula.

% = total mass of element total mass of the compound X 100 Example 1 What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the fertiliser ammonium nitrate? (NH4NO3)

Elements in Compound Mass Nx2 Hx4 14 x 2

= 28 1x4 =4 Total mass = 80g O x3 16 x 3

= 48 Example 1 What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the fertiliser ammonium nitrate? (NH4NO3) Elements in Compound Mass

% of Nitrogen = Nx2 Hx4 O x3

14 x 2 = 28 1x4 =4 16 x 3 = 48 total mass of element

X total mass of the compound 100 Example 1 What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the fertiliser ammonium nitrate? (NH4NO3) Elements in

Compound Mass % of Nitrogen = Nx2 Hx4

O x3 14 x 2 = 28 1x4 =4 16 x 3

= 48 28 80 X 100 Example

What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the fertiliser ammonium nitrate? (NH4NO3) Elements in Compound Mass % of Nitrogen =

Nx2 Hx4 O x3 14 x 2 = 28

1x4 =4 16 x 3 = 48 35% Plenary

Unit 3 Key Area: Chemical Analysis Date Chemical Analysis Learning Intentions To know about some of the ways chemists can

monitor our environment and ensure it remains healthy and safe What would you use the following for?

conical flask beaker measuring cylinder delivery tube dropper test tubes/boiling tubes

funnel filter paper evaporating basin pipette with safety filler burette

thermometer Could you do the following? Simple filtration using filter paper and a funnel to separate the residue from the filtrate Use a balance Methods for the collection of gases including: collection over water (for relatively insoluble gases) downward displacement of air (for soluble gases that are less dense than air)

upward displacement of air (for soluble gases that are more dense than air) Methods of heating using Bunsen burners and electric hotplates Preparation of soluble salts by the reaction of acids with metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides and metal carbonates Preparation of insoluble salts by precipitation Testing the electrical conductivity of solids

and solutions Setting up an electrochemical cell using a salt bridge and either metal or carbon electrodes Electrolysis of solutions using a d.c. supply Determination of Eh Analytical Methods Testing Gases

Simple tests can be used to identify oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases. Titration A titration can be used to determine accurately, the volumes of solution required to reach the end-point of a chemical reaction. An indicator is normally used to show when the end-point is reached. Titre volumes within 02 cm3 are considered

concordant. Solutions of accurately known concentration are known as standard solutions. Activity 10.b Titrations In a titration a pipette is used to transfer a known volume of acid or base into a conical flask. An indicator is then added to the conical flask. The indicator allows the end point of the titration to be easily observed. A burette is filled with acid or base of a known

concentration. The burette is then used to accurately add known volumes of acid or base into the conical flask. When a colour change is observed, the reaction has reached its end point. Activity 10.9d Flame Testing When metal compounds are placed in a flame, characteristic colours are produced. Different metals give different colours,

therefore the presence of a metal in a compound can be detected using flame colour. Flame colours can be found in the data booklet on page 6. Activity 10.9c Precipitation Precipitation is the reaction of two solutions to form an insoluble salt called a precipitate. Information on the solubility of compounds

can be used to predict when a precipitate will form. The formation of a precipitate can be used to identify the presence of a particular ion. Metal ions can also be detected using precipitation reactions. The colour of the precipitate formed (insoluble solid) allows us to determine which metal ion was present.

Non-metal ions can also be detected using precipitation. E.g. Sodium Hydroxide reacting with cobalt(II) 2NaOH(aq) + Co2+(aq) Co(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) Lead Nitrate +Potassium Iodide Lead Iodide + Potassium Nitrate Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

Reporting experimental work Labelled, sectional diagrams can be drawn for common chemical apparatus. Data can be presented in tabular form with appropriate headings and units of measurement. Data can be presented as a bar, line or scatter graph with suitable scale(s) and labels. A line of best fit (straight or curved) can be used to represent the trend observed in experimental data.

Average (mean) values can be calculated from data. Given a description of an experimental procedure and/or experimental results, an improvement to the experimental method can be suggested and justified.

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