EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Chapter Overview Social Thinking Social Influence Antisocial Relations Prosocial Relations Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Thinking Social psychology Is the scientific study of how we think about,

influence, and relate to one another Social psychologists Use scientific methods to study how people think about, influence, and relate to one another Study the social influences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Thinking When explaining others behavior, especially from an individualist Western cultural perspective

Fundamental attribution error committed by underestimating the influence of the situation and overestimating the effects of stable, enduring traits Behavior more readily attributed to the influence of the situation Explaining and attributing actions can have important real-life social and economic effects Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Thinking Fundamental attribution error Is tendency, when analyzing others behavior, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation

Is most likely to occur when stranger acts badly Has real-life and social consequences Napolitan and colleagues (1979) Students attributed behavior of others to personal traits, even when they were told that behavior was part of an experimental situation. Lee Snider/The Image Works Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images AN ATTRIBUTION QUESTION Whether we attribute poverty and homelessness to social circumstances or to personal dispositions affects and reflects

our political views. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Attitudes Affect Actions Attitudes are feelings influenced by beliefs, that predispose reactions to objects, people, and events. Peripheral route persuasion uses incidental cues to try to produce fast but relatively thoughtless changes in attitudes. Central route persuasion offers evidence and arguments to trigger thoughtful responses

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Actions Affect Attitudes Actions can modify attitudes. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon involves compliance with a large request after having agreed to a small request Role playing includes acting a social part by following guidelines for expected behavior Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Thinking Foot-in-the-door phenomenon People agreeing to a small request will find it easier to

agree later to a larger one Principle works for negative and positive behavior Attitudes follow behavior Cooperative actions, such as those performed by people on sports teams, feed mutual liking. Such attitudes, in turn, promote positive behavior. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Thinking When attitudes do not fit with actions, tensions are often reduced by changing attitudes to match actions (cognitive

dissonance theory). We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) clash. Brain regions become active when people experience cognitive dissonance. Through cognitive dissonance we often bring attitudes into line with our actions (Festinger). Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Influence Conformity and obedience Chartrand and colleagues (1999) Demonstrated chameleon effect with college students Automatic mimicry helps people to empathize and feel what

others feel. The more we mimic, the greater our empathy, and the more people tend to like us. This is a form of conformity. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Conformity and Obedience Solomon Asch and others have found that people are most likely to adjust their behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard when

They feel incompetent or insecure Their group has at least three people Everyone else agrees They admire the groups status and attractiveness They have not already committed to another response They know they are being observed Their culture encourages respect for social standards Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images ASCHS CONFORMITY EXPERIMENTS

Which of the three comparison lines on the left is equal to the standard line? The photo on the right (from one of the experiments) was taken after five people, who were actually working for Asch, had answered, Line 3. The student in the center shows the severe discomfort that comes from disagreeing with the responses of other group members. Ted Horowitz Photography, 2014 Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images People May Conform For Many Reasons Normative social influence: To gain

approval Informational social influence: To accept others opinions as new information CONFORMING TO NONCONFORMITY Are these students asserting their individuality or identifying themselves with others of the same microculture? Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images

SOCIAL NETWORKING INFLUENCE On the 2010 U.S. congressional election day, Facebook gave people an informational message that encouraged voting. The message had measurably more influence when supplemented with a social message that showed friends who had voted (Bond et al., 2012). Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images However Suggestibility and mimicry sometimes lead to tragedy. Copycat violence threats after Colorados Columbine High School shootings

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Milgrams Obedience Experiments Stanley Milgrams experiments People obeyed orders even when they thought they were harming another person. Strong social influences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or exhibit cruel behavior. In any society, great evil acts often grow out of peoples compliance with lesser evils. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images MILGRAMS FOLLOW-UP OBEDIENCE EXPERIMENT

In a repeat of the earlier experiment, 65 percent of the adult male teachers fully obeyed the experimenters commands to continue. They did so despite the learners earlier mention of a heart condition and despite hearing cries of protest after they administered what they thought were 150 volts and agonized protests after 330 volts. (Data from Milgram, 1974.) Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Milgrams Obedience Experiments Findings Obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when Person giving orders was nearby and was perceived as a

legitimate authority figure Research was supported by a prestigious institution Victim was depersonalized or at a distance There were no role models for defiance Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Influence In social facilitation (Triplett), presence of others arouses people, improving performance on easy or well-learned tasks but decreasing it on difficult ones. Performance can also be hindered because the most likely, but not necessarily the correct response occurs.

Home town advantage Crowding effect Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Influence Home team advantage When others observe us, we perform well-learned tasks more quickly and accurately. But on new and difficult tasks, performance is less quick and accurate. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Lawrence Lewis Whyld/ PA Wire/Press Association/AP Images

Migdale/Photo Researchers, Inc. Social Influence Social loafing Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Causes WORKING HARD, OR HARDLY WORKING? In group projects, such as this Earth Day beach cleanup, social loafing often

occurs, as individuals free ride on the efforts of others. Acting as part of group and feeling less accountable Feeling individual contribution does not matter Taking advantage when there is lack of identification with group Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Social Influence Deindividuation

Involves loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Thrives in many different settings Lewis Whyld/ PA Wire/Press Association/AP Images Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images DEINDIVIDUATION During Englands 2011 riots and looting, rioters were disinhibited by social arousal and by the anonymity provided by darkness and their hoods and masks. Later, some of those arrested expressed bewilderment over their own behavior.

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Group Polarization and Groupthink Group polarization Group discussions with like-minded others strengthen members prevailing beliefs and attitudes. Internet communication

magnifies this effect, for better and for worse. Groupthink Individual power People are driven by a desire for harmony within a decision-making group, overriding realistic appraisal of alternatives.

Power of the individual and the power of the situation interact. A small minority that consistently expresses its views may sway the majority. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images GROUP POLARIZATION

If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions. Talking over racial issues increased prejudice in a high-prejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a lowprejudice group (Myers & Bishop, 1970). Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images LIKE MINDS NETWORK IN THE BLOGOSPHERE Blue liberal blogs link mostly to one another, as do red conservative blogs. (The intervening colors display links across the liberal conservative boundary.)

Each dot represents a blog, and each dots size reflects the number of other blogs linking to that blog. (From Lazer et al., 2009.) By connecting and magnifying the inclinations of likeminded people, the Internet can be very, very bad, but also very, very good. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Antisocial Relations Prejudice Components Means prejudgment Is an unjustified negative

attitude toward some group and its members Often targets different cultural, ethnic, or gender group Beliefs Emotions Predispositions to action (to discriminate) Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images

Prejudice is a negative attitude. IMPORTANT DISTINCTIONS Discrimination is a negative behavior. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images How Prejudiced Are People? Explicit prejudice in North America has decreased over time.

Support for all forms of racial contact, including interracial dating Social roots of prejudice Social inequalities: Have often developed attitudes that justify status quo Just-world phenomenon: Good is rewarded and evil is punished. Stereotypes: Rationalize inequalities. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Antisocial Relations Groups Through social identities people associate themselves with others. Evolution prepares people to identify with a group

Ingroup: Social definition of who we areand are not Ingroup bias: Favoring of our own group Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Emotional Roots of Prejudice Scapegoat theory Proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger Research evidence (Zimbardo) Prejudice levels tend to be high among economically frustrated people In experiments, a temporary frustration increases prejudice

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Antisocial Relations Implicit prejudice Implicit racial associations Implicit Association Tests results: Even people who deny racial prejudice may carry negative associations Unconscious patronization Lower expectations, inflated praise and insufficient criticism for minority student achievement Race-influenced perceptions Automatic racial bias

Reflexive bodily responses Unconscious, selective responses when looking at faces Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Forming categories Humans categorize people by race: mixedrace people identified by minority identity Similarities overestimated during categorization; creating Us and They Overestimation also occurs; other-race effect or bias

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images CATEGORIZING MIXED-RACE PEOPLE When New Zealanders quickly classified 104 photos by race, those of European descent more often than those of Chinese descent classified the ambiguous middle two as Chinese (Halberstadt et al., 2011). Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images The Biology of Aggression Biology influences aggression at three levels. Genetic influences Evidence from animal studies and twin studies; genetic Y chromosome genetic marker; MAOA gene

Alcohol associated with aggressive responses to frustration Neural influences Neural systems facilitate or inhibit aggression when provoked Aggression more likely to occur with frontal lobe damage Biochemical influences Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration; alcohol effect Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Adversive events

Frustration-aggression principle: Frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression Other anger triggers Hot temperatures, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, crowding, and a host of others Previous reinforcement for aggressive behavior, observing an aggressive role model, and poor selfcontrol Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Media portrayals of violence provide social

scripts that children learn to follow. Viewing sexual violence contributes to greater aggression toward women. Playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Do violent video games teach social scripts for violence? Nearly 400 studies of 130,000 people suggest video games can prime aggressive

thoughts, decrease empathy, and increase aggression. Some researchers dispute this finding and note other factors: Depression, family violence, and peer influence. Andrew Berwick via www.freak.no /Reuters/Landov Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Psychological and SocialCultural Influences on Aggression

COINCIDENCE OR CAUSE? In 2011, Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik bombed government buildings in Oslo, and then went to a youth camp, where he shot and killed 69 people, mostly teens. How is this related to effects of media violence? Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Aggressive Behavior Social-Cultural Influences deindividuation, or a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint

challenging environmental factors, such as crowding, heat, and direct provocations parental models of aggression minimal father involvement rejection from a group exposure to violent media Biological Influences Psychological Influences genetic influences biochemical influences, such as testosterone and alcohol neural influences, such as a severe head injury

dominating behavior (which boosts testosterone levels in the blood) believing that alcohol has been ingested (whether it has or not) frustration aggressive role models rewards for aggressive behavior low self-control Aggressiv e behavior

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Prosocial Relations Psychology of attraction Proximity (mere exposure effect) Physical attractiveness Similarity of attitudes and interests Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ATTRACTIVE? The answer varies by culture and over time. Some adult physical features, such as a youthful form and average face, seem attractive everywhere.

Appealing traits enhance feelings of physical attractiveness. Liking endures when people are more alike. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Prosocial Relations Modern matchmaking Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are on average slightly more likely to last and be satisfying. Nearly a quarter of heterosexual and two-thirds of samesex couples met online. Speed-dating Men are more transparent.

Choices may be more superficial. Women are more choosy than men. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Romantic Love Passionate love Two-factor theory of emotion Emotions have two ingredientsphysical arousal and cognitive appraisal. Arousal from any source can enhance an emotion, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal. Sexual desire + a growing attachment = the passion of romantic love

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Romantic Love Companionate love Passionate love seldom endures. Passion-fed hormones (testosterone) give way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding Attraction and sexual desire endure, without obsession of early-stage marriage Equity is important key to satisfying and enduring relationship Self-disclosure deepens intimacy

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Altruism Altruism is an unselfish concern for the welfare of others. People are most likely to help when they notice an incident, interpret it as an emergency, and assume responsibility for helping (Darley and colleagues). Odds for being helped are also increased if the person appears to deserve help or is a women. Similarity to self, unhurried or in a good mood, feeling guilty, focused on others and not preoccupied also raises likelihood of being helped.

Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Altruism Bystander affect Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Occurs when there is a diffusion of responsibility Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images The Norms for Helping Positive social norms encourage generosity and enable group living. Socialization norm

Social expectation that prescribes how we should behave Reciprocity norm Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefit (cost-benefit analysis; utilitarianism; social exchange theory) Social-responsibility norm Expectation that people should help those who depend on them Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Peacemaking Conflict Perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas in which people become enmeshed in potentially destructive processes that often produce unwanted

results Among these processes are social traps and distorted perceptions Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Peacemaking Social trap Situation in which conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior Mirror-image perceptions Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful

and views the other side as evil and aggressive Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Conflict and Peacemaking Enemy perceptions People in conflict form negative, distorted images of one another (mirror-image perceptions) Us versus Them develops Vicious cycle of hostility emerges at individual or national level Perceptions can become self-fulfilling prophecies Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images

Promoting Peace Research indicates that in some cases contact and cooperation can be transformational. Contact Most effective when contact is free of competition and equal status exists Across a quarter-million people studied in 38 nations, friendly contact with ethnic minorities, older people, and people with disabilities has usually led to less prejudice. Contact is not always enough. Macduff Everton/The Image Bank/Getty Images Promoting Peace

Cooperation Cooperative contact, not conflict alone, reduced conflict. Experiments with teens in 11 countries confirm that cooperative learning can maintain or enhance student achievement. Communication Conciliation

When real-life conflicts become intense, a third-party mediator may facilitate much needed communication. Mediators can help each party to voice its viewpoint and to understand the others needs and goals; change a winlose orientation to a win-win one

GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReduction) is alternative to war or surrender

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