CANKAYA UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES -ENGLISH UNIT- WRITING ENG 106 WEEK 3&4 SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Sentence fragments are incomplete sentences or parts of sentences. A complete sentence must contain; at least 1 independent clause
there may be one or more dependent clauses. An independent part-time. clause Ex : Some students work A dependent clause Because some students work part-time. Dependent clauses require to be connecteed to an independent
clause SENTENCE FRAGMENTS For example, the increase in the cost of renting an apartment. PROBLEM : The sentence doesnt have a VERB. SOLUTION: Rewrite the sentence adding a verb so that it will have a Subject, SUBJECT Verb & Object. For example, the increase in the cost of renting an apartment is
VERB one reason for more people being OBJECT homeless. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS answers P2 1. F : The desire of all humankind is to live in peace and freedom, for example. 2. F : Second, it is a fact that men are physically stonger
than women. 3. F : The best movie that I saw last year was Avatar. 4. Complete 5. Complete 6. F : Although people want to believe that all men are created equal, it is not true. 7. Complete 8. F : Many of my friends who did not have the opportunity to goto college are unhappy. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS 9. F : Working during the morning and attending classes during
the afternoon doesnt leave much time for fun. 10.F : Because I dont feel taht grades in college have any value, I do not worry if I get a bad grade. 11.F : a tsunami that occured in the Indian Ocean in December 2004 killed more than 200000 people. 12.Complete 13.F : This was more than twice the total explosive energy used during all of WW2, including two atomic bombs, according to one expert. 14.F : there is evidence that waves reached a heigh of 80 feet ( 24m) when coming ashore along the coastline and rose to 100 feet ( 30m) in some areas when travelling inland.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS answers P2 P1: Believing that they are far better drivers than women. Correct: Believing that they are far better drivers than women , men consider women drivers incompetent, inattentive, and even dangerous. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS answers P2 P2: For example, insurance rates. Also, the greater percentage of accidents involving deaths caused by men. Although women are criticised to for being too cautious.
Correct: For example, insurance rates for women are 20% than they are for men. Also, the greater percentage of accidents involving deaths are caused by men. Although women are criticised to for being too cautious , they are really just being safe drivers. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS answers P2 P3 : On the one hand, women drivers who regard the automobile as a convenience. Like a washing machine. Using it as a weapon when they feel particularly aggressive.
Or using it as a stratus symbol. Correct:On the one hand, women drivers who regard the automobile as a convenience like a washing machine. On the other hand, men regard the automobile as an extension of their egos, using it as a weapon when they feel particularly aggressive or using it as a stratus symbol. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS answers P2 P4 : Because of their attitude. If they adopt the attitude that an automobile is merely a convenience. Correct: All in all , women are safer drivers
because of theri attitude. Men can learn to become safe drivers if they adopt the attitude that an automobile is merely a convenience. RUN-ON SENTENCES Run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses are written one after another with no punctuation. RUN-On : My family went to Australia then they emigrated to Canada. RUN-ON
SENTENCES There are various ways to correct a Runon : 1. Add a period ( . ) : My family went to Australia. Then they emigrated to Canada. 2. Add a semicolon ( ; ) : My family went to Australia; then they emigrated to Canada. RUN-ON SENTENCES There are various ways to correct a Runon : 3. Add a coordinator : My family went to Australia, and then they
emigrated to Canada. 2. Add a subordinator : My family went to Australia before they emigrated to Canada. After my family went to Australia, they emigrated to Canada. COMMA SPLICE When 2 independent clauses are incorrectly joined by a comma without a coordinating conjuction , COMMA SPLICE, a kind of error, occurs Comma Splice : My family went to Australia, then
they emigrated to Canada. RUN-ON SENTENCES - answers A newly arrived international student faces several challanges, for example, he or she has to cope with a new culture . a. Add a period : A newly arrived international student faces several challanges. For example, he or she has to cope with a new culture . b. Add a semicolon :
A newly arrived international student faces several challanges; for example, he or she has to cope with a new culture . RUN-ON SENTENCES - answers New York city is very cosmopolitan, people from many cultures and ethnic groups live there. a. Add a period : New York city is very cosmopolitan. People from many cultures and ethnic groups live there. b. Add a semicolon : New York city is very cosmopolitan; people from many cultures and
ethnic groups live there. c. Add a subordinator : New York city is very cosmopolitan because people from many cultures and ethnic groups live there. d. Add a coordinator : New York city is very cosmopolitan, for people from many cultures and ethnic groups live there. RUN-ON SENTENCES - answers Learning a new language is like learning to swim it takes a lot of practice.
Add a coordinator : Learning a new language is like learning to swim, for it takes a lot offor practice. Ask assistance at the reference desk in the library, a librarian is always on duty. Add a semicolon : Ask for assistance at the reference desk in the library; a librarian is always on duty. sport you can easily break your leg or your Skiing is a dangerous neck.
Add a subordinator : Becasue skiing is a dangerous sport, you can easily break your leg or your neck. RUN-ON SENTENCES - answers PART B: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
COMMA SPLICE CORRECT COMMA SPLICE CHAPTER 3 NOUN CLAUSES NOUN CLAUSES A NOUN CLAUSE is a dependent clause that functions as a noun. often part of an independent
clause : it can be a subject or an object. Subject V What the newspaper reported was incorrect. SUBJECT People once believed that the world was V
flat. OBJECT That clauses A that clause is a DEPENDENT CLAUSE that begins with the word that. The young filmmaker hopes that his film will be a financial success. That clauses A that clause may appear in different locations: 1. After the independent clause verb : ( as object of
the verb) Ex.: The catalogue states that science courses require a laboratory period. 2. After certain adjectives: ( happy, glad, proud, sad, pleased, worried,sorry,certain, surprised & sure) Ex.: The class was surprised that the instructor cancelled the final exam. That clauses 3. After certain nouns: (idea, theory, thought, claim, statement, belief, opinion) Ex.: Noone believed Galileos theory that Earth revolves around the world.
4. At the beginning of a sentence: (as subject of the verb) Ex.: That Earth is getting warmer and warmer is certain. That clauses - answers 3. Researchers proved a long time ago that women learn languages more easily than men do. 4.Scientists reassure men that womens superior language skills do not mean that women are more intelligent than men. 5. It has often been observed that men are better at reading maps.
6. It is thought by many scientists that mens and womens brains developed different spatial skills because of the different tasks they performed in prehistoric times. 7. It is known that women are better at remembering the location of objects. If / whether clauses - answers 2. if the needles are made of stainless steel or of some other metal. 3.whether the needles hurt when they are inserted. 4. if the effectiveness of acupuncture in relieving back pain has ever been documented.
5.whether acupuncture can strengthen the immune system. 6.whether acupuncture uses the bodys energy to promote healing. 7.whether you studied acupuncture in China or in the united States. 8.if you have ever used acupuncture during an operation. Question clauses - answers 2. When the band had last performed in Fog city. 3.How many years they had been together as a group 4.Who wrote their songs
5.Where they practiced on the road 6.How many songs the band had recorded 7.Which company produced their CDs 8. How many Grammys EDITING PRACTICE 2. What transistors were. 3.He said that they were very small electronic devices used in telephone, automobiles, radios, and so on. 4.He further explained that transistors controlled the flow of electric current in electronic equipment. 5. could not 6...agreed that it was the personal computer
7. ...asked if the students knew how transistors functioned in computers 8.... increased 9....when transistors had been invented. 10. ..they had been invented in 1947. 11... he was correct 12. .. what the importance of the invention was. 13....it was the beginning CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
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