Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Energy Flow in Ecosystems Components of an Ecosystem living and non-living things interact

with each other in an ecosystem biomass total mass of all living matter in an area abiotic factors non-living things biotic factors living things

Abiotic Factors The four major abiotic components are: a. climate b. soil, dead material, and rock c. topography

d. natural disturbances Biotic Factors Biotic factors are anything that is living: a. plants

b. animals c. microscopic organisms Abiotic Factors Find the abiotic and biotic factors

Biotic Factors Find the abiotic and biotic factors Energy Roles Energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight

Energy flows through an ecosystem in a cycle Each organism has a role to play in this energy flow Producer Consumer

Decomposer Producers Autotrophs Producers make their own food and are the source of all the energy in an

ecosystem Autotrophs Plants, algae, grass, trees, flowers, bacteria, plankton Producers

Consumers Heterotrophs Cannot make their own food Get their energy from consuming other organisms

Heterotrophs herbivores carnivores omnivores Consumer - Herbivore

Consumer - Carnivore Consumer - Omnivore Decomposers and Scavengers

Decomposers break down waste and return the raw materials into the soil Waste and dead organisms must be removed from the environment Bacteria Fungi

Carrion eaters like vultures, coyotes, maggots Decomposers and Scavengers Food Chains

A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy. first organism in a food chain is always a producer Next organisms are consumers

Food Chains Decomposers can be at any level Food Chain

Food Web A food chain just shows one track of energy flow A food web consists of many overlapping food chains Organisms can play more than one role

in a food web Food Web Food Web

Trophic Level Organisms can be divided into trophic levels producers are at the bottom Next are primary consumers (herbivores)

Secondary consumers (omnivores or carnivores) Tertiary consumers (omnivores or carnivores) Trophic Level

Energy Pyramids An energy pyramid shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web At each level upward, the amount of

energy decreases due to use Energy Pyramids When an organism eats food, it obtains energy The organism uses some of this energy

for living (about 90%) Not all of this energy is available to the next consumer in line (only 10% moves to the next level) Energy Pyramids

The most energy is available at the producer level The amount of energy at the producer level determines how many organisms an ecosystem can support The least amount of energy is available

at the third level or tertiary consumer Energy Pyramids Energy Pyramids

Cycling of Energy Once an organism dies, decomposers take over and break down the material it was made of These nutrients are put back into the soil

Plants then use those nutrients along with sunlight to recycle that energy back into the food chain Energy flows through an ecosystem in a cycle

Cycling of Energy Composting helping the natural decomposition process break down waste Using a compost bin, we can recycle

food scraps and return those nutrients to the soil Click on the link to go to the vocabulary games: http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ECOSYS01 http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ECOSYS02

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