Emotivism - RSAQUINAS

Emotivism - RSAQUINAS

Emotivism By the end of this lesson you will have: Be able define the meta-ethical theory of EMOTIVISM. Understand A.J. AYERS ideas on emotivism and why its called the BOO-HURRAH THEORY. Be confident with using the following terms: - Non-cognitive - Verified - Analytic - Synthetic

Homework Reminder Due 23rd November Revision notes need to have the key features AND the challenges Re-write your virtue ethics assessment using my comments to make amendments, Where you make amendments WRITE THESE IN A DIFFERENT COLOUR so I can see that you have made the changes. You can rewrite this either on paper or typed up. Complete essay planning in your booklet for explain ethical naturalism and explain the challenges against ethical naturalism

Spec Check Emotivism F Meta-ethical approaches Emotivism: Theory that believes objective moral laws do not exist; a non-cognitivist theory; moral terms express personal emotional attitudes and not propositions; ethical terms are just expressions of personal approval (hurrah) or disapproval (boo); explains why people disagree about morality. A.J. Ayer ethical statements are neither verifiable nor analytic; made to express

joy or pain (emotion); expressed to be persuasive; emotivism in not subjectivism. Challenges Challenges: No basic moral principles can be established; ethical debate becomes a pointless activity; there is no universal agreement that some actions are wrong. The extent to which moral terms are just expressions of our emotions.

Starter Write out the alphabet. You will have two minutes to write an EMOTION for each letter of the alphabet. 0:01 0:02 0:03 0:04 0:05

0:06 0:07 0:08 0:09 0:10 0:11 0:12 0:13 0:14 0:15 0:16 0:17 0:18

0:19 0:20 0:21 0:22 0:23 0:24 0:25 0:26 0:27 0:28 0:29 0:30 0:31

0:32 0:33 0:34 0:35 0:36 0:37 0:38 0:39 0:40 0:41 0:42 0:43 0:44

0:45 0:46 0:47 0:48 0:49 0:50 0:51 0:52 0:53 0:54 0:55 0:56 0:57

0:58 0:59 1:00 1:01 1:02 1:03 1:04 1:05 1:06 1:07 1:08 1:09 1:10

1:11 1:12 1:13 1:14 1:15 1:16 1:17 1:18 1:19 1:20 1:21 1:22 1:23

1:24 1:25 1:26 1:27 1:28 1:29 1:30 1:31 1:32 1:33 1:34 1:35 1:36

1:37 1:38 1:39 1:40 1:41 1:42 1:43 1:44 1:45 1:46 1:47 1:48 1:49

1:50 1:51 1:52 1:53 1:54 1:55 1:56 1:57 1:58 1:59 2:00 End Which emotions are useful and which arent? Why?

Do emotions have much of a role in play in moral decision making? Emotivism An ethical theory which says that moral statements are just expressions of FEELINGS and/or EMOTIONS. It is a NON-COGNITIVE theory. What does this mean? Ethical statements cannot be proved true or false. Therefore, objective moral laws do NOT exist. Emotivism 1920s Vienna Circle Developed a theory called LOGICAL POSITIVISM.

Only what can be tested can be meaningful A. J. Ayer Alfred Jules Ayer 1910-1989 British Philosopher Book: Language, Truth and Logic TASK In pairs, read pages 56 and 57 of you reading logs and answer the following questions: 1. Is a statement such as euthanasia is wrong a factual statement for

an emotivist? 2. What can an ethical statement arouse and stimulate? 3. What 2 types of statement are meaningful for A J Ayer and the logical positivists? 4. What is all ethical language according to the logical positivists? 5. What is the boo hurrah theory? A. J. Ayer A statement is meaningful only if it can be VERIFIED. What does verified mean? To prove something

true or false A. J. Ayer A meaningful statement could be verified SYNTHETICALLY or ANALYTICALLY Synthetic Statements Can be verified by sense experience (i.e. empirically). E.g. Theres a

squirrel in that tree. Anna has blonde hair. Analytic Statements True by definition E.g. Frozen water is ice.

2+2=4. Task: Synthetic or Analytic? 1. A bachelor is an unmarried man. 2. A straight line is the shortest distance between two points. 3. It is raining outside. 4. Danny Pearson is the principal of Aquinas College. 5. A triangle is a three sided shape. Ethical/Moral Statements War is wrong.

Euthanasia is right. Capital punishment is right. Q: Are the ethical statements on the left analytic or synthetic? A: Neither! Q: What does Ayer conclude about ethical statements? A: They are MEANINGLESS! Ayer argued that ethical/moral statements are not analytic (verified by definition) and not synthetic (verified empirically).

Therefore, objective moral laws do not exist. Emotivism Ayer explained ethical statements and moral judgements as EMOTIVE RESPONSES, expressing feelings. Ayers theory is known as EMOTIVISM. Emotivism According to Ayer, to say that the ouch I express when I tread on a pin is true is meaningless.

In the same way, moral arguments are meaningless. How? Boo - Hurrah Ayer saw ethical language simply as an expression of feeling of approval or disapproval. Sometimes called the BOO-HURRAH THEORY. Boo - Hurrah Abortion is wrong. Is the same as

Abortion. Boo! Boo - Hurrah Charity work is good. Is the same as Charity work. Hurrah! Boo - Hurrah Respond to the following issues/actions with BOO! or HURRAH!.

War Capital Punishment Euthanasia Eating meat Sex before marriage Emotivism Notice that the emotive response varied amongst people in the class.

How do we know who is right? For in saying that a certain type of action is right or wrong, I am not making any factual statement I am merely expressing certain moral sentiments. And the man who is ostensibly contradicting me is merely expressing his moral sentiments. So there is plainly no sense in asking which of us is in the right. For neither of us is asserting a genuine proposition. (Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic) Emotivism Ayer was influenced by David Hume. Hume believed that SENTIMENT is the

source of right and wrong. You help someone because you have FEELINGS not because of reason. Emotions are persuasive Whats the point of emotivism? Ethical claims are not designed to make ethical claims, but to invoke emotional responses from the hearer. What statements mean isnt important, but rather what they accomplish. E.g. Abortion is wrong is a recommendation for people not to abort a foetus. They try to PERSUADE the listener to respond in a certain way.

ethical statements do not serve only to express feelings. They are calculated also to arouse feeling , and so to STIMULATE ACTION. (Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic) Emotivism Independently, read pages 170-172 (Non-cognitive theories of meta-ethics) and answer the following questions: 1. Why is emotivism regarded as a non-cognitive theory? 2. Why are ethical statements meaningless according to Ayer? (You need to refer to the verification principle in your answer. 3. Define emotivism. 4. Although not factual, what can ethical statements do?

Learning Check By the end of todays lesson you will: Be able define the meta-ethical theory of EMOTIVISM. Understand A.J. AYERS ideas on emotivism and why its called the BOO-HURRAH THEORY. Be confident with using the following terms: Boo! - Non-cognitive Skills Focus - Verified - AO1 knowledge and understanding - Analytic

- Specialist language and vocabulary Hurrah! - Synthetic ETHICS - Theme 1: Ethical Thought F Meta-ethical approaches Emotivism By the end of todays lesson you will: Have consolidated your understanding of EMOTIVISM. Know three CHALLENGES to emotivism. Boo!

Skills Focus - AO1 knowledge and understanding - Specialist language and vocabulary Hurrah! Spec Check Component 3: Ethics Theme 1: Ethical Thought AO1 Knowledge and Understanding A Divine Command Theory

B Virtue Theory C Ethical Egoism D Meta-ethical approaches Naturalism E Meta-ethical approaches Intuitionism F Meta-ethical approaches Emotivism AO2 Issues for Analysis and Evaluation

Whether morality is what God commands. Whether being a good person is better than just doing good deeds. Whether Virtue Theory is useful when faced with a moral dilemma.

The extent to which ethical egoism inevitably leads to moral evil. The extent to which all moral actions are motivated by self interest. Whether one of Divine Command, Virtue Theory or Ethical Egoism is superior to the other theories. Whether ethical and non-ethical statements are the same. The extent to which ethical statements are not objective. Whether moral terms are intuitive. The extent to which moral terms are just expressions of our emotions. Whether one of Naturalism, Intuitionism or Emotivism is superior to the other theories. The extent to which the different meta-ethical theories encourage moral debate. Spec Check Component 3:

Ethics Theme 1: Ethical Thought AO1 Knowledge and Understanding F Meta-ethical approaches Emotivism: Theory that believes objective moral laws do not exist; a non-cognitivist theory; moral terms express personal emotional attitudes and not propositions; ethical terms are just expressions of personal approval (hurrah) or disapproval (boo); explains why people disagree about morality. A.J. Ayer ethical statements are neither verifiable nor analytic; made to express joy or pain (emotion); expressed to be persuasive; emotivism in not subjectivism. Challenges: No basic moral principles can be established; ethical debate becomes a pointless activity; there is no universal agreement that some actions

are wrong. AO2 Issues for Analysis and Evaluation The extent to which moral terms are just expressions of our emotions.

Starter: Find Someone Who 5 minutes Challenges to Emotivism Challenges Task Explain how the following challenge emotivism. Try to use examples to show your understanding: 1. No basic moral principles can be established. 2. Ethical debate becomes a pointless activity. 3. There is no universal agreement that some actions are wrong.

No basic moral principles can be established. One could never establish that, for example, rape is wrong. Why not? Ethical statements are meaningless, non-cognitive statements they just express our emotion. I am simply saying I dont like rape, or Rape boo! Why, according to Ayer, are ethical statements meaningless? They cannot be verified. Why not? They are not analytic or synthetic.

Ethical debate becomes a pointless activity. It cannot state that something is right/wrong. Emotivism is based on feelings not reason. It is nothing more than a boo-hurrah shouting match. Vardy and Grosch in The Puzzle of Ethics state that emotivism leaves ethical debate as just so much hot air and nothing else. There is no universal agreement that some actions are wrong If we cant ever talk about what is wrong, how can we ever agree on basic global moral principles?

Surely most people think hurting a child is wrong, but we cant make this claim For example, Amnesty International would never be able to try and abolish the death penalty nor would the UN be able to say that child labour is wrong Is Emotivism Justified? * Are moral truths merely an expression of emotion? Moral terms are merely expressions of emotions Assess this view (30) ARE just expressions of emotions

Cant be verified or falsified Change depending on the person Merely just an expression of boo-hurrah ARE NOT just expressions of emotions Ethics is the basis of the justice system Ethics is needed to address global problems There is general agreement that basic moral principles exist Ethical naturalism Cant be verified or falsified

POINT: Some would agree that ethical language is merely an expression of emotion because it can be neither verified or falsified. EXPLAIN: Briefly explain what verified/falsified means. State that this leads ethical language to be non-cognitive and therefore meaningless. SUPPORT: For example, even basic moral principles such as murder is wrong become meaningless and cant be proven either way. EVALUATE: This is a strong / weak point because. Consolidate and Stretch your Knowledge Tasks 1. Read the emotivism essay thats in your reading log. From your reading, add to your notes on emotivism e.g. other scholars

contributions, new examples, arguments that would be useful for an evaluation (AO2) question. 2. Choose which of the following to do: Write a response to the question on emotivism in your essay planning book. (PEEL) Create flash cards on key vocabulary/terms relating to emotivism. Create an emotivism mind-map ETHICS - Theme 1: Ethical Thought F Meta-ethical approaches Emotivism By the end of todays lesson you will: Have consolidated your understanding of EMOTIVISM.

Know three CHALLENGES to emotivism. Boo! Skills Focus - AO1 knowledge and understanding - Specialist language and vocabulary Hurrah!

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