Elements of Poetry

Elements of Poetry

Elements of Poetry Ms. Drane What is poetry? A type of writing that uses language to express imaginative and emotional qualities instead of or in addition to meaning Point of View in Poetry POET The poet is the

author of the poem SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the narrator of the poem Language in Poetry Figurative Language used to create a special effect

in feeling; characterized by figures of speech or language that compares, exaggerates, or words that mean something other than its literal meaning Literal The exact primary meaning of a word or words Poetic Structures

Meter Meter is the pattern of rhythm established for a verse Iambic foot A foot is a unit of meter; consists of two or three syllables An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Example: We could write the rhythm like this: da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM

Rhythm The actual sound that results from a line of poetry Gives poetry a musical feel Can be fast or slow, depending on mood and subject of poem You can measure rhythm in meter by counting the beats in each line. Rhythm Example The Pickety Fence by David McCord The pickety fence The pickety fence

Give it a lick its The pickety fence Give it a lick its A clickety fence Give it a lick its a lickety fence Give it a lick Give it a lick Give it a lick With a rickety stick pickety pickety pickety pick. The rhythm in this poem is

fast to match the speed of the stick striking the fence. Rhythm Example Where Are You Now? When the night begins to fall And the sky begins to glow You look up and see the tall City of lights begin to grow In rows and little golden squares The lights come out. First here, then there Behind the windowpanes as though

A million billion bees had built Their golden hives and honeycombs Above you in the air. By Mary Britton Miller The rhythm in this poem is slow to match the night gently falling and the lights slowly coming on. Rhyme Rhymes are

words that end with the same sound (Hat, cat, and bat) Rhyming sounds dont have to be spelled the same way. (Cloud and allowed) Rhyming Patterns (Rhyme Scheme)

Poets can choose from a variety of different rhyming patterns AABB lines 1 & 2

rhyme and lines 3 & 4 rhyme ABAB lines 1 & 3 rhyme and lines 2 & 4 rhyme ABBA lines 1 & 4 rhyme and lines 2 & 3 rhyme ABCB lines 2 & 4 rhyme and lines 1& 3 do not rhyme Position of Rhyme End Rhyme

Consists of the similarity occurring at the end of two or more lines of verse Internal Rhyme Consists of the similarity occurring between two or more words

in the same line Examples Internal Rhyme Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe End Rhyme The graves a fine and private place

But none I think do there embrace. Near, Off, or Slant Rhyme A rhyme based on an imperfect or incomplete correspondence of end syllable sounds. Common in the work of Emily Dickinson Example:

Unwarmed by any sunset light The gray day darkened into night, A night made hoary with the swarm And whirl-dance of the blinding storm, As zigzag, wavering to and fro, Crossed and recrossed the winged snow; Poetic Forms Poetry Form FORM the appearance of the

words on the page LINE a group of words together on one line of the poem STANZA a group of lines arranged together

A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day. Types of Stanzas Couplet (2 lines) Triplet (3 lines) Quatrain (4 lines) Quintet (5 lines) Sestet (6 lines)

Septet (7 lines) Octave (8 lines) Couplet A couplet is a poem, or stanza in a poem, written in two lines. Usually rhymes The Jellyfish Who wants my jellyfish?

Im not sellyfish! By Ogden Nash Blank Verse Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter Helpful hint: William Shakespeare often writes in Blank Verse Example of Blank Verse To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to saw we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, tis a consummation Devoutly to be wishd. -William Shakespeare From Hamlet Free Verse Poetry that does not have a regular

meter or rhyme scheme. Excerpt from Song of Myself by Walt Whitman I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loaf and invite my soul, I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass Sonnet a fourteen line poem that is usually written

in iambic pentameter and has a strict rhyme scheme Interesting Factoid: William Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets to an unnamed patron during the Bubonic Plague when all of the theatres were closed down. Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summers day? A Thou art more lovely and more temperate.

B Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A And summer's lease hath all too short a date. B Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, C And often is his gold complexion dimmed; D And every fair from fair sometime declines, C By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed; D But thy eternal summer shall not fade, E Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,

Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, F E When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st. F So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, G So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. G Elegy Usually a poem that mourns the death of an individual, the absence of something deeply loved, or the transience of mankind

Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head; It is some dream that on deck, You've fallen cold and dead. -"O Captain! My Captain!" by Walt Whitman Narrative Poetry A narrative poem is a poem that tells a story Example: Twas the Night Before

Christmas By Clement C. Moore Lyric Poetry The most widely used type of poem, so diverse in its format that a rigid definition is impossible. However, several factors run common in all lyrics: ~Limited length ~Personal expression of emotion ~Expression of thoughts and feelings of one speaker ~Highly imaginative ~Regular rhyme scheme

Limerick A funny poem with five lines; often called a nonsense poem Lines 1, 2, and 5 rhyme Lines 3 & 4 are shorter and rhyme

Line 5 refers to line 1 There Seems to Be a Problem I really dont know about Jim. When he comes to our farm for a swim, the fish as a rule, jump out of the pool. Is there something the matter with him? Haiku A popular form of traditional Japanese poetry

3 lines, 17 syllables 5 syllables Zombie Haiku 7 syllables 5 syllables Zombies shuffling Doing the dance of the dead Two left feetno lie! Concrete Poetry Uses word arrangement, typeface, color or other visual effects to complement or dramatize the meaning of the words used

Epic Poems A long story told in verse which tells the great deeds of a hero Examples: The Odyssey The Iliad Beowulf Acrostic Poem Where the letters in a line spell out a particular word or phrase. Fancy Writing A pome?

Pi C k a topic of your choice You can w R ite about anything Let y O ur imagination run wild Choo S e the right words Writing your T houghts on paper Nothing is I mpossible Be C reative! Literary Devices Used in Poetry Figurative language Figurative Language

(figures of speech) Figurative Language is the use of words outside of their literal or usual meaning to add beauty or force Imagery

Imagery is the use of words to create pictures, or images in your mind. Appeals to the five senses: smell, sight, hearing, taste, and touch. Details about smells, sounds, colors, and tastes create strong images. To create vivid images writers use

figures of speech Five Senses Metaphors & Similes Simile Metaphor A direct comparison between two unlike things using like or as.

An implied comparison between two unlike things without the use of the words like or as EX: Her home was like a prison EX: Her home was a prison Alliteration The use of similar sounds at the beginning

or end of a word Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. Tis some visitor, I muttered, tapping at my chamber doorOnly this, and nothing more. --Edgar Allen Poe, The Raven Onomatopoeia The use of a word or words whose sound

imitates its meaning Personification A special kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing is talked about as if it was human (given human characteristics) The Cat and the Fiddle Hey diddle, Diddle, The cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon; The little dog laughed To see such a sport, and the dish ran away with the spoon

Symbolism When a person, place, thing, or idea stands for itself and for somethingUnited else States Strength Courage Freedom peace

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