CPFI - Blessings International Medicines For Missions
Sourcing Medicine for Missions Barry Ewy, PharmD, JD, MHA CEO Blessings International Disclosure Information Sourcing Medicine for Missions Barry Ewy, PharmD, JD, MHA
I have the following financial relationships to disclose: I am an Employee of Blessings International. I will not discuss off label use and/or investigational use in my presentation. Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this activity, pharmacists
should be able to: Define counterfeit medication and identify the financial and human costs thereof; Define substandard medication and identify the financial
and human costs thereof; Describe the risks and benefits of obtaining medications in the United States and transporting into developing nations; Describe the risks and benefits of obtaining medications in developing nations; Identify sources of safe medicine for missions; Describe how to apply strategies for sourcing safe medicine for missions. Quotes from Yogi Bera
Baseball is 90 percent mental. The other half is physical. I always thought that record would stand until it was broken. If you come to a fork in the road, take it. It aint the heat, its the humility. If you dont know where youre going, you might wind up some
place else. Donald Rumsfeld There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things
we don't know we don't know. Case Study September 2006, Panamanian physician reported unusual number of patients with unexplained acute renal failure. Patients frequently also presented
with severe neurological dysfunction. Other symptoms included: nausea, vomiting epigastric discomfort, followed by oliguria or anuria, anorexia and fatigue Counterfeit Blacks Law Dictionary
To forge; to copy or imitate, without authority or right, and with a view to deceive or defraud, by passing the copy or thing forged for that which is original or genuine. Counterfeit Drug - FDA A drug which, or the containers or labeling of
which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device or any likeness thereof, of drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such drug and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.
Counterfeit Drug - WHO counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the
correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active Prevalence of Counterfeiting 1% of medicines in developed nations are likely to be counterfeit 10% of medicines globally are likely
to be counterfeit 53% of medicines in developing nations are likely to be counterfeit WHO (2006b). Counterfeit medicines: an update on estimates. Financial Cost of Counterfeiting Approximately $40 Billion in 20051 Estimated at $75 Billion in 20101
15% of the legal pharmaceutical market For every $1,000 invested, the return is2: $20,000 profit from Heroin $400,000 profit from counterfeit medicine
Cheng. Is the drugstore safe? Counterfeit diabetes products on the shelves. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2009. 2 Sanofi. The fight against counterfeit medicines: 1 Human Cost of Counterfeiting 20%
of Annual Deaths from Malaria Worldwide1 40% of Artusenate contained no active ingredient1 Niger Meningitis Epidemic 19952 Cockburn. Leading world organizations to seek solutions. (2002). 2 WHO. Counterfeit Medicines Fact Sheet. (2006). 3
Newton, et al. Impact of poor-quality medicines in the 1 Case Study 12 out of 21 patients died, despite dialysis and supportive treatment 42 case patients / 140 control patients Median age 68 years (range: 25 to
91) 64% male Serum Creatinine > 2mg/dl or acute worsening of pre-existing chronic renal failure Case Study Investigators recognized potential correlation with lisinopril
Investigators also recognized potential correlation with cough syrup for coughs resulting from the ACE inhibitor Cough syrup formulated by local hospital was shown when analyzed to have diethylene glycol Rentz, et al. Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study. Bull World Health Organ. 2008 Oct; 86 (10); 749-756.
Reasons for Counterfeiting Lack of appropriate medicine legislation Absence of, or weak national medicines regulatory agency Shortage or erratic supply of medicines
Price differentials Trade through several intermediaries Inappropriate use of medicines World Health Organization. Counterfeit Medicines, Malaria medicine distributed at a clinic in Switte, Burma Source: Paula Bronstein/Getty
Images Guess the Fake Guess the Fake Guess the Fake Guess the Fake Follow-Up
Substandard Medicine Definition WHO Genuine medicines produced by manufacturers which do not meet quality specifications set for them by national standards. Substandard medicines are pharmaceutical products that do not
meet their quality standards and specifications. Substandard Medicine Prevalence Survey of the quality of selected antimalarial medicines circulating in six countries of subSaharan Africa. WHO, 2011. Substandard Medicines Prevalence
8.5% of Thialand Market 16% of Myanmar Medicines Failed Quality Tests 26% of Rifampicin 24% of Cotrimoxazole WHO. World health organization steps up action against substandard and counterfeit
medicines. 2003. Types of Failures Lower content of API and higher content of related substances Failure to meet dissolution rates Failures in mass uniformity tests Survey of the quality of selected antimalarial
medicines circulating in six countries of subSaharan Africa. WHO, 2011. Examples of Failures Primaquine tablets contained 19168% active ingredient Gentamicin-resistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in gentamicin eye-drops Methylprednisolone injection lead to fungal meningitis
Survey of the quality of selected antimalarial medicines circulating in six countries of sub-Saharan Africa. WHO, 2011. Impact of Poor Quality Medicines Increased mortality and morbidity Engendering of drug resistence and loss of medicine efficacy
Loss of confidence in health systems and health workers Economic loss Adverse effects from incorrect active ingredients Increased burden for health workers and regulators Newton, et al., Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010 Mar; 31 (3-3); 99-101.
Pros of Obtaining Medicine In-Country No No customs issues extra baggage Help the local economy Build relations with local pharmacies and local officials
Cons of Obtaining Medicine In-Country Counterfeit and substandard medicines Not the right medicines Not enough of what is needed Time spent sourcing medicines
Patients prefer medicines from the US Street Vendor in Haiti Medicine for sale in a Cte dIvoire street market SOURCE: Issouf Sanogo/Getty Images
Mission Pharmacy Pharmacy in Ghana Pros of Transporting Medicine into Country Confidence in quality of medicines (trustworthy and accurate) Ability to verify appropriate amount
Ability to pre-pack if desired Team can prepare formulary / medication list prior to trip Nationals prefer US medicines over locally produced or acquired medicines Cons of Transporting Medicine into Country Medicines
may be taxed or confiscated Medicines may be subject to unknown conditions Amount of medicines are limited by team size Formulary must be carefully selected Sourcing Medicine for Missions Hospital
or local pharmacy Quality Product Known Quantity Cost could be a concern Ability to purchase Sourcing Medicine for Missions Manufacturer
or Sales Representative Cost Effective Quality Product Quantity may vary Ability of future teams to duplicate May take a lot of time to contact multiple sources
Sourcing Medicine for Missions Various Donations Cost Effective Quality may vary depending on source Quantity may vary May take a lot of time to contact
multiple sources Sourcing Medicine for Missions Missions Wholesalers Quality Product Known Quantity Cost Effective
Future teams more easily duplicate the generics Sourcing Medicine for Missions Purchase In-Country No Customs issues
No extra baggage Quality may be of concern Quantity may vary May take time to source Other Important Information Obtain paperwork to show authorities (medicine names, lot numbers, expiration
dates, etc.) Keep in original sealed containers Obtain paperwork to show the medicine will be a gift to those being treated Take in-date medicines Always refer to the stock as medicines, not drugs Leave excess with responsible health care professional Dont re-import Import for Export medicines
Additional Literature Bulletin of the World Health Organization http://www.who.int/bulletin/en/ US Food and Drug Administration Counterfeit Medicine
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/ CounterfeitMedicine/default.htm Partnership for Safe Medicines
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