Connective Tissue Overview - TCHS Anatomy and Physiology

Connective Tissue Overview - TCHS Anatomy and Physiology

Connective Tissue Overview Bell Ringer: 9.4.2013 Name 2 types of epithelial tissue and their function. Connective Tissue

Found everywhere in the body Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues Functions Binds body tissues together Supports the body Provides protection Insulates to maintain body temperature Transportation of other molecules

Special Characteristics 1. common origin- all arise from embryonic tissue (mesenchyme) 2. Degrees of vascularity- cartilage is avascular while other types have rich blood supply 3. Extracellular matrix- connective tissue

more able to bear weight, withstand tension, and endure abuses because unlike other tissues it is not made up mostly of cells. Most abundant tissue in body Structural Characteristics 3 Main Elements

Ground Substance: unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers. This is consists mostly of fluid and proteins. Fibers: provide support. 3 types: collagen, elastic and reticular

fibers. Collagen fibers: protein. Extremely tough and provide high tensile strength. (white) Elastic fibers: long and thin that form branches. Elastin protein. Moves like a rubber band. (yellow) Found in skin, lungs,

blood vessels. Reticular Fibers: very fine fibers that Structural Characteristics Cont. Cells- composed of many types 1. Blast Cells: undifferentiated cells -fibroblast - chondroblast

-osteoblast -hematopoietic stem cells 2. Fat Cells- nutrient storage 3. Blood cells- defense 4. Plasma Cells-produce antibodies 5. Macrophages- dispose of dead tissue cells and act in immune response

Types of Connective Tissue Types of Connective Tissue Types of Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue Adipose Tissue Dense Connective Tissue

Loose Connective Tissue Fibers not abundant Extensive blood supply Examples of locations Between skin and muscles Around digestive tract Around blood vessels Packing material of body

Adipose Tissue Still loose connective tissue Most of the volume is adipocytes Provides padding, slows heat loss, food reserve Locations Common under skin of

sides, gluteal, and mammary regions Wherever there is loose connective tissue Adipose Tissue

Dense Connective Tissue Lots of collagen fibers Examples Tendons (muscle bone) Ligaments (bone bone) Some has elastic fibers Supportive Connective Tissue:

Cartilage & Bone Cartilage Dense network of collagenous fibers & elastic fibers in a gel-like substance Avascularrepair capabilities limited Cells chondrocytes in lacunae chondroblasts

Perichondrium surrounds surface of cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Most common Provides flexibility and support Locations Ends of bones larynx

Trachea, embryonic skeleton Connecting ribs to sternum Fibrocartilage Visible collagenous fibers with scattered chondrocytes Provides strength and rigidity

Locations Intervertebral discs Symphysis pubis Elastic Cartilage Resilient and flexible External ear(pinna) Epiglottis Auditory tube

Tolerates distortion without damage Supportive Connective Tissue: Cartilage & Bone Bone (aka osseous tissue) Solid matrix (solid Ca cpds) Cells Osteocytes in lacunae

Osteoblasts Periosteum surrounds surface of bone Bone Table 4.3 Fluid Connective Tissue: Blood

Functions Transport medium Regulation Protection Composition Plasma fluid Formed elements cells & cell fragments Red blood cell

White blood cell Platelets (important in clotting) Red Blood Cells A White Blood Cell

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