Computer-Aided Design

Computer-Aided Design

NAME:SARTAZ TOPIC: Computer-Aided Design BRANCH: MECHANICAL SUBJECT: CAD/CAM YEAR : 4-1 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design

Typical tools: Tolerance analysis Mass property calculations Finite-element modeling and visualization Defines the geometry of the design

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control manufacturing operations Direct or indirect computer interface with the plants production resources Numerical control of machine tools

Programming of robots Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry Allows designer to simulate and study how the product will behave, allowing for optimization Finite-element method

(FEM) Divides model into interconnected elements Solves continuous field problems Computer-Aided Design Process

Two types of activities: synthesis and analysis Synthesis is largely qualitative and hard to capture on computer Analysis can be greatly enhanced with computers Once analysis is complete, design evaluation- rapid prototyping Software packages for design optimization Components of CAD/CAM/CAE

Systems Major component is hardware and software allowing shape manipulation Hardware includes graphic devices and their peripherals for input and output operations Software includes packages that manipulate or analyze shapes according to user

interaction Components of CAD/CAM/CAE Systems Hardware Components Graphic device is composed of a display processing unit, a display device, and one or more input devices Input devices:

Mouse Space ball Data tablet with a puck or stylus Keyboard Output Devices:

Plotters Color laser printers Hardware Configuration #1 Hardware Configuration #1 Requires a big initial investment for hardware and software

Maintenance of mainframe is expensive Slow system response times Updating operating systems is difficult

Hardware Configuration #2 Hardware Configuration #2 Engineering workstations connected in a networked environment User can choose appropriate workstation on a task

by task basis Widely used; trend toward distributed computing Initial investment is smaller than configuration #1 Hardware Configuration #3

Popular with small companies Popular with companies whose main purpose is to generate drawings with their CAD/CAM/CAE systems Same as the second, except engineering

workstations are replaced by personal computers running Microsoft Windows Distinction between configurations 2 and 3 becoming blurred as personal computers evolve Software Components CAD software allows the designer to

create and manipulate a shape interactively and store it CAM software plans, manages and controls the operations of a manufacturing site CAE software analyzes design geometry, allowing designer to study product behavior Windows-Based CAD Systems User interface is similar to Windows

Employs component technology, in which best key software elements are selected from among available software Use object-oriented technology, which modularizes the program Capable of either parametric or variational modeling Internet support Rapid Prototyping

Rapid Prototyping has surgical applic ations Layer by layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models from CAD Fast and inexpensive alternative for producing prototypes and functional models

Build parts in thin layers Minimum operation time; typically runs unattended Medical Modeling - Zcorp Rapid Prototyping Cycle Rapid Prototyping Cycle .STL is standard file format for all U.S. rapid

prototyping systems Preprocessing prepares .STL file for various rapid prototyping systems Build process can last from a few hours to several days Post processing: removal of part from machine, support removal, sanding

Rapid Prototyping Process (Damvig) A computer-controlled laser beam is scanned across the surface of a vat of liquid photopolymer, instantly solidifying the liquid at each point of contact. Using data generated from a CAD file, individual cross-sections of the three-dimensional geometry are

solidified in turn to build up a solid part layer by layer. In this way even highly complex geometries can be built in a few hours without requiring any tools.

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