Communism in Asia: Part I - Ms. Pennock- Notre Dame de Sion ...

Communism in Asia: Part I - Ms. Pennock- Notre Dame de Sion ...

Communism in Asia: Part I China China In the early 20th century, China undergoes a popular revolution- the Nationalist party (Kuomintang or KMT) takes control, Sun Yat-sen becomes the president Although initially popular, the new government eventually looses popularity among peasants when they fail to see a rise in standard of living A communist movement is born in China in the 1920s, based off of Soviet-style communism By the 1927, a civil war between the Nationalist regime and the communists has begun

Mao Tse-Tung (Zedong) Mao (last name) Tse-tung was born to peasant parents, became interested in communism, rose to leadership in the Chinese communist Party. Mao led his group of communist rebels through the civil war, and became a popular hero after he offered up the only credible opposition to the Japanese occupation.

WWII The nationalists and the communists declare a cease-fire after the Japanese attack in the late 1930s. They are unable to repel the Japanese from the northern part of China- the Nationalist army withdraws to the south. The communist rebels stay in northern China and conduct a guerilla campaign against the Japanese Post WWII After WWII ends, hostilities resume between the Nationalists, headed by Chang Kai-shek and the Communists, headed by Mao.

The US chooses to back the Nationalists, and funnels millions of dollars to them, but they are run out of the mainland, and set up a government-in-exile on the island of Taiwan after the communists claim victory in 1949. The Peoples Republic of China v. The Republic of China Two separate Chinas exist to this day- the communist mainland- PRC, and the Nationalists in exile on Taiwan- ROC. The US

officially recognized the ROC as the real China, but eventually reversed that in the 1970s. We have pledged to defend the ROC through the Taiwan Relations Act The "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino-Soviet Split In 1958, Mao broke with the Soviet model and announced a new economic program, the "Great Leap Forward," aimed at rapidly raising industrial and agricultural production. Giant cooperatives (communes) were formed, and "backyard factories" dotted the Chinese landscape. The results were disastrous. Normal market mechanisms were disrupted, agricultural

production fell behind, and China's people exhausted themselves producing what turned out to be shoddy, un-salable goods. Within a year, starvation appeared even in fertile agricultural areas. From 1960 to 1961, the combination of poor planning during the Great Leap Forward and bad weather resulted in one of the deadliest famines in human history. The already-strained Sino-Soviet relationship deteriorated sharply in 1959, when the Soviets started to restrict the flow of scientific and technological information to China. The dispute escalated, and the Soviets withdrew all of their personnel from China in August 1960. In 1960, the Soviets and the Chinese began to have disputes openly in international forums. Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution In the early 1960s, State President Liu Shaoqi and his protege, Party General Secretary Deng Xiaoping, took over direction of the party and adopted pragmatic economic policies at odds with Mao's revolutionary vision. Dissatisfied with China's new

direction and his own reduced authority, Party Chairman Mao launched a massive political attack on Liu, Deng, and other pragmatists in the spring of 1966. The new movement, the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution," was unprecedented in communist Chinas history. For the first time, a section of the Chinese communist leadership sought to rally popular opposition against another leadership group. China was set on a course of political and social anarchy that lasted the better part of a decade. In the early stages of the Cultural Revolution, Mao and his "closest comrade in arms," National Defense Minister Lin Biao, charged Liu, Deng, and other top party leaders with dragging China back toward capitalism. Radical youth organizations, called Red Guards, attacked party and state organizations at all levels, seeking out leaders who would not bend to the radical wind. In reaction to this turmoil, some local People's Liberation Army (PLA) commanders and other officials maneuvered to outwardly back Mao and the radicals while actually taking steps to rein in local radical activity. Gradually, Red Guard and other radical activity subsided, and the Chinese political situation stabilized along complex factional lines. The leadership conflict came to a head in September 1971, when Party Vice Chairman and Defense Minister Lin Biao reportedly tried to stage a coup against Mao; Lin Biao allegedly later died in a plane crash in Mongolia. In the aftermath of the Lin Biao incident, many officials criticized and dismissed during 1966-69 were reinstated. Chief among these was Deng Xiaoping, who reemerged in 1973 and was confirmed in 1975 in the concurrent posts of Party Vice Chairman, Politburo Standing Committee member, PLA Chief of Staff, and Vice Premier. The ideological struggle between more pragmatic, veteran party officials and the radicals re-emerged with a vengeance in late

1975. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, and three close Cultural Revolution associates (later dubbed the "Gang of Four") launched a media campaign against Deng. In January 1976, Premier Zhou Enlai, a popular political figure, died of cancer. On April 5, Beijing citizens staged a spontaneous demonstration in Tiananmen Square in Zhou's memory, with strong political overtones of support for Deng. The authorities forcibly suppressed the demonstration. Deng was blamed for the disorder and stripped of all official positions, although he retained his party membership. Post Mao Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. Former Minister of Public Security Hua Guofeng was quickly confirmed as Party Chairman and Premier. A month after Mao's death, Hua, backed by the PLA, arrested Jiang Qing and other members of the "Gang of Four." After extensive deliberations, the Chinese Communist Party leadership reinstated Deng Xiaoping to all of his previous posts at the 11th Party Congress in August 1977. Deng then led the effort to place government control in the hands of veteran party officials opposed to the radical excesses of the previous 2 decades.

The new, pragmatic leadership emphasized economic development and renounced mass political movements. At the pivotal December 1978 Third Plenum (of the 11th Party Congress Central Committee), the leadership adopted economic reform policies aimed at expanding rural income and incentives, encouraging experiments in enterprise autonomy, reducing central planning, and attracting foreign direct investment to China. The plenum also decided to accelerate the pace of legal reform, culminating in the passage of several new legal codes by the National People's Congress in June 1979. After 1979, the Chinese leadership moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The party encouraged artists, writers, and journalists to adopt more critical approaches, although open attacks on party authority were not permitted Korea

1905-1945 Japan controlled all of the Korean Peninsula Japanese rule was harsh, unpopular Many witnesses, including Catholic priests, reported that Japanese authorities dealt with insurgency severely. When villagers were suspected of hiding rebels, entire village populations are said to have been herded into public buildings (especially churches) and massacred when the buildings were set on fire. A Korean Provisional Government was set up in exile in China in response to the occupation, and periodic raids and insurrection were staged by the provisional government WWII

On 9 December 1941, shortly after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, under the presidency of Kim Gu, declared war on Japan and Nazi Germany. The Provisional Government banded together various Korean resistance guerilla groups Outside of the control of the Provisional Government was the communist-backed Korean Volunteer Army (KVA), which was established in Yenan, China from a core of 1,000 deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. The KVA entered Manchuria, where it recruited from the ethnic Korean population and eventually became the Korean People's Army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Post WWII

The Soviet Union invaded and occupied the northern part of Korea to drive out the Japanese, and American-led forces occupied the southern half. After the war was over, the Soviets were unwilling to leave The Communist Korean guerilla forces were backed in the north by the Soviets. In the south, the Americans proposed splitting the country at the 38th parallel. This eventually came to pass via a UN resolution. Kim Il-Sung A leader of the Korean Peoples Army, Kim-IlSung, backed by the

Soviets, will become the first leader of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea). He will establish a Stalinist regime in North Korea, and will eventually order the invasion of South Korea in 1950. Questions

1. Who was Sun Yat-Sen? 2. What causes the Chinese Nationalists and communists to declare a cease-fire in the late 30s? 3. What did the new leadership in China postMao emphasize? 4. Where was the Korean Provisional Government in Exile set up? What did it do? 5. What was the KVA? Bonus- What do the Japanese occupation tactics in Korea remind you of?

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