CO2-Norway AS

CO2-Norway AS

www.co2.no A Logistic and Economic Perspective on Delivering CO2 for EOR Projects in the North Sea Presentation by Carl-W. Hustad, CEO CO2 - Norway AS, Kongsberg ________________________ Session I2 - Transmission of CO2 Seventh International Conference on GHG Control Technologies 10:40 12:20 September 08, 2004 Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. An Established CO2 Value Chain www.co2.no Coal Gasification North Dakota LaBarge Utah n or lif Ca McElmo Dome

ia Natural Industrial Pipelines Colorado Sheep Montain Oklahoma Arizona St. John Dome CO2-Sources Wyoming New Mexico Bravo Dome Ammonia Plant Mississippi Jackson Dome Permian Basin Texas Gas Plants Louisiana Source: CO2 - Norway AS

A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. Permian Basin Denver City CO2 Hub Oil production from CO2-EOR in PB is currently 165,000 bbl oil per day with 25 mtCO2 being injected per annum. Salt Creek Denver City New Mexico Central Basin Pipeline N. Dollarhide Elmar Termination of the CRC Pipeline into SACROC. SACROC

Welch Texas S. Cowdan Dora Roberts Keystone Sandhills ne More than half of world's CO2floods are located in Texas. Slaughter McElmo Dome Pi pe li Bravo Dome Sheep Mountain CO2-floods in the Permian Basin (PB) increased from <10 in 1982 to +60 in 2003. CR C www.co2.no

Mc Elroy Waddell McCamey Puckett Plant 0 20 40 Miles 60 Mitchell Plant Grey Ranch Plant Val Verde Yates Terrell Plant A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. CO2 for EOR in North Sea Potential delivery of CO2 for EOR through infrastructure at cost of < $35 /tCO2. Screening of the most mature EOR fields indicates potential of > 30 mtCO2/yr for +20 year period. A combination of pipelines and ship

transportation enhances flexibility and economics for initial EOR projects. Designated fields are potential CO2-floods. www.co2.no Draugen Potential CO2 for EOR fields CO2-sources Brent Tampen Gullfaks Area Ninian Claymore Mongstad Brage Brae Forties Grane Krst Sleipner CO2-hub Herya Fulmar Ekofisk Billingham

Dan/Gorm Esbjerg CO2-hub Pernis Antwerp Brunsbttel Source: CO2 - Norway AS Snhvit Possible Dutch Project (?) CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure www.co2.no Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. .... with CO2-Capture www.co2.no CO2-Emission reduced by 90 % SO2-Emission capture is 99,9 % NOx-Emissions reduced by 5 % Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, Esbjerg Coal Plant technologyPower and commercial

solutions to Clean Energy Systems Inc. Gas Generator Test 1Q-2003 www.co2.no Completed 37 full power tests. Operated continuously to the limit of test facility (3 min). Accumulated total of 664 seconds test time. Operated at 75-110 bar. Steam/CO2 gas generated at temperatures of 315 - 870 C. Produces ~22,725 kg gas/hr. Operates at ~18.5 MWt LHV Video clip showing Gas Generator in test cell enclosure. Not available on downloaded version of this presentation. Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. CES 5 MW Test Facility at Kimberlina, nr. Bakersfield www.co2.no Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. Zero Emission Norwegian Gas ZENG Program Oct 2003 www.co2.no - 2008

40 MW Pilot & Demonstration Plant located near Stavanger. Phase-1 Concept & Feasibility Study was completed August 2004. Project participants are Lyse Energi, Energiparken Sweco-Grner, DNV, Nebb Engineering, CES, Klimatek + US-DOE. Phase-2 Pre-Eng. & Qualification scheduled to start during 4Q-2004. (Budget $2.5 million). Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. Base Case 40 MW Demo Plant at the Energy Park, Risavika www.co2.no HP Fuel @ 94 bar (1.7 kg/s) T=47C @ 94 bar

(22.1 kg/s) GG RH LP Fuel @ 30 bar (0.45 kg/s) Nitrogen @ 6 bar (8.0 kg/s) HP 8.8 MW T=396C @ 26 bar (29.7 kg/s) Power Balance: Thermal Input (LHV) Gross Power Produced Balance of Plant Net Export Power Plant Efficiency T=705C @ 26 bar (32.2 kg/s) = 99.3 MW = 49.6 MW = 9.6 MW = 40.0 MW = 40.3% Excess water @ 2 bar (4.3 kg/s) Air

ASU 6.3 MW Nitrogen Turbo Expander TX 2.9 MW Gear Box T=790C T=565C @ 83 bar Nitrogen to Stack (8.0 kg/s) GO2 @ 30 bar (8.0 kg/s) 0.7 MW Nitrogen to Stack (18.0 kg/s) CO2 compression & drying in 4 stages 46.8 MWe IP 26.2 MW + LP 11.8 MW

~ T=40C @ 0.08 bar ~ 2.8 MWe 1.9 MW CO2/H2O T=30C (9.5 kg/s) T=22C @ 7.5 bar (5.8 kg/s) CO2 is chilled prior to storage and ship transportation of ~170,000 tCO2/yr. 0.4 MW 0.3 MW Cooling water flow=3,400 m/hr with T=16C CO2-Floods in the North Sea Opportunity for Ships Transportation? www.co2.no Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects,

technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. CO2-Floods in the North Sea Opportunity for FPSO? www.co2.no There are perceived to be extensive opportunities for implementation of new cost-saving technologies in conjunction with developing CO2-EOR in the North Sea. These should subsequently have a substantial export potential to other offshore regions like the Gulf of Mexico. Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. CO2-Floods in the North Sea Opportunity for Subsea completion? www.co2.no Above image from front cover of report entitled CO2 as injection gas for EOR and estimation of the potential on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, 2003. Above image courtesy of Norsk Hydro ASA Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere.

Source: CO2 - Norway AS A company focused on developing projects, technology and commercial solutions to mitigate CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. The CO2-Arena www.co2.no Technology Legislation Trading Mechanisms Communication Engineering Education Commercial Incentives Fiscal Incentives Investor motivation Social awareness FINANCE POLITICS CLIMATE CHANGE STAKEHOLDERS INDUSTRY Climate-change and CO2 are together genuine 21st century transdisciplinary and multicultural problems that will necessitate a holistic approach requiring understanding of parallel developments in multiple arenas.

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