Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties

CIVIL LIBERTIES And how they relate the Judicial Branch Overview What are civil liberties Not the same as civil rights, although related They are the protections the Constitution provides against the abuse of government power i.e. censoring speech Civil liberties can be viewed as a set of principles that protect the freedom of everyone all the time, but one persons civil liberties can conflict with someone elses i.e. censoring public information (without security clearances), which restricts freedom of Press national security v. 1st amendment War often restricts liberties in the name of national security Sedition Act, Espionage and Sedition Act government narrowed the freedom of speech and activity

Civil Liberties and Federalism Civil Liberties originally only applied to the federal government 14th Amendment discusses everyones rights to due process under the law Meaning no state can deny any person equal protection under the law This begins selective incorporation Review Selective Incorporation = federal rights being applied to the states US

Constitution 14th Amendment Forces Congress to protect citizens Constitutional Rights, specifically civil liberties Incorporates Constitutional Rights into the States forces states to protect civil liberties The 1 Amendmen tFreedom of Expression st

Speech Press Assembly Petition The most common reason Freedom of Expression has been restricted is during times of war or for national security Sedition Act kept the Press free from prior-restraint (the limiting of what they could publish), but punished them after the fact if they deemed it a national security threat The Espionage Act brings the case Schenck v. the US, which establishes the clear-and-present-danger-test

defendants have to have known they were going to cause harm 1st Amendment Continued The courts generally defer to national security over the protection of civil liberties When discussing the safety of others within the country, the courts have rule that a person has to be inciting imminent lawless action in order for it to be deemed illegal This is what protects groups like the KKK and Westboro Baptist Church It is not illegal to be offensive

1st Amendment Continued What is Free Speech Libel = writing that falsely injures another person Slander = saying something that falsely injures another person Obscenity Obscene materials, like pornographic material, are not protected because they appeal to sexual rather than political or academic interests States are allowed to regulate obscene materials, but there is no one definition of what is obscene Symbolic Speech = political speech the most protected Corporations, interest groups, and children still have the right to free speech with

limits 1st Amendment Continued landmark cases Schenk v. US New York Times v. US Tinker v. Des Moines Speech can be punished only if it presents a clear and present danger Pentagon Papers Case Nixon the Executive cannot censor (use prior restraint) on the Press unless it causes the inevitable, direct, and immediate danger of US Armed Forces Public-school students are protected to wear armbands to protest war as long as it doesnt disrupt classes

Texas v. Johnson (not required) Cannot pass a law that bans the burning of the flag, it is protected under the freedom of expression Citizens United v. FEC Campaign Finance Reform law cannot prevent corporations and labor unions from spending money on ads independent of candidates and parties 1st Amendment Continued MC Practice 1. Legislation forbidding flag burning was deemed unconstitutional because it violated a) 1st amendments free exercise clause b) Necessary and Proper Clause

c) 1st amendments protection of expression d) 14th amendments definition of citizenship e) 1st amendments establishment clause 2. In response to the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act (McCain Feingold Act), SCOTUS, in Citizens United v. the FEC, ruled that a) Limits cannot be placed upon candidates contributions to their own campaigns b) Independent campaign expenditures by corporations and unions are protected by the 1st amendment c) Limits on issue ads 90 days before an election are unconstitutional d) Limits on campaign contributions by minors are unconstitutional under the 1 st amendment e) Requiring endorsement statements in campaign ads is unconstitutional SCOTUSs test for restrictions on Expression Preferred Position free expression is higher than other rights like property Prior Restraint absolutely no prior restraint on expression like censorship

Imminent Danger immediate danger of inciting an unlawful act Neutrality restrictions of speech cannot favor one group over another Clarity if you do limit expression legally, the law must have clear standards Least-restrictive Means if restricting a right to protect another persons rights, you must do so in the least restrictive way possible 1 Amendmen t Continued st Discuss with a partner whether or not you believe hate speech

or offensive speech should be protected under the first amendment in all public places (including schools and universities) Should there be any limitations? If so, what should they be? If there should be limitations, where would you draw the line? 1 Amendmen t st The Establishment Clause Freedom of Religion Free-exercise clause = law cannot prevent the free

exercise of religion Government cannot place unfair restrictions on the actions of a particular religion However, not exempt from the same laws that bind all other citizens i.e. polygamy Establishment clause = no law can establish an official religion Wall of separation principle = government cannot be involved in religion (separation of church and state) No sponsored prayer in public schools 1st Amendments Continued Landmark religion cases Everson v. Board of Education (not required)

Sets wall of separation precedent (separation of church and state) Engel v. Vitale No sponsored prayer in schools Lemon v. Kurtzman (not required) 3 tests are described for deciding whether the government is improperly involved with religion Reynolds v. US (not Religious duty does not stop criminal indictments required) Oregon v. Smith (not required)

Wisconsin v. Yoder Employers can deny unemployment to workers fired for using Peyote for religious reasons Right to free-exercise of religion more important than states right to compel education until 8th grade 1st Amendment Religion MC Practice 1. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the establishment clause? a) It gives Congress the power to protect civil liberties and civil rights b) It prohibits Congress from establishing a state religion c) It empowers Congress to create a national bank d) It prevents Congress from prohibiting the possession of guns on school grounds

e) It grants Congress the power establish post offices 2. With respect to 2nd Amendment Cases Guns and Gun Control District of Columbia v. Heller (not required) DCs handgun ban was unconstitutional McDonald v. Chicago The 2nd amendment applies to the states

The 4 and th 5 Amendmen ts Self-incrimination th Miranda v. Arizona Miranda Rights (not required) A confession should be considered involuntary and unlawful unless the person had been fully and clearly informed of his or her right to be silent, have an attorney present, and

an attorney free of charge The exclusionary rule evidence gathered in violation of the Constitution can not be used in a trial Right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures (4th) Right not to incriminate oneself (5th) So when can police search you? Search warrant Probable cause more than just a suspicion When you are lawfully arrested Can search you, things in plain sight, things or places in you immediate control (the room or car in which you were arrested, but not everywhere you own or live)

Good Faith Exception A minor error in gathering evidence Public Safety Exception Police can question a suspect if there is urgent concern for public safety Inevitable Discovery If something would have been found anyway it can be used in court 4th and 5th Amendments Continued 4th and 5th Amendments

continued - Terrorism The Patriot Act Things allowed with a court order Telephone taps Internet taps Seize Voicemail Other things allowed Get Secret Grandy Jury Info Hold noncitizen for 7 days to decide to charge with a crime or deport can hold longer if they are a security risk Track money movement No statute of limitations on terrorist crimes higher penalties

4th and 5th Amendments continued Landmark cases Mapp v. Ohio (not required) Evidence illegally obtained may not be used in criminal trials Right to an attorney if you cannot afford Gideon v. Wainwright one Miranda v. Arizona (not required) US v. Leon (not required) Rasul v. Bush and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (not required)

Miranda rights read to arrested individuals Illegally obtained evidence may be used in trial if it was done in good faith and is minor Terrorist detainees must have access to a neutral court to decide if they have been legally detained Search and Seizure 4 and 5 Amendmen ts continued th th Is the Patriot Act a violation of our civil liberties?

Why has the Patriot Act taken precedent over civil liberties? Do you think we need the Patriot Act? Has it made our country better or worse off? 6 Amendmen t th Right to Counsel Speedy and Public Trial Impartial Jury Right to Call and Confront Witnesses Right to be Informed of Charges

6th Amendment Cases Gideon v. Wainwri ght You have to be provided an attorney if you cant afford one MC Practice Overview 1. The Free-Exercise Clause protects a) The President from forcibly revealing conversations with staff b) Individuals who, for religious reasons, refuse to pay Social Security taxes c) Voluntary prayer by student groups before school d) A persons right to burn the American flag e) A persons right to practice polygamy

2. Gitlow v. NY and New York Times v. Sullivan are US Supreme Court Cases that dealt with which amendment? a) First b) Second c) Fourth d) Fifth e) Fifteenth 3. The process of extending the protections of the Bill of Rights by means of the 14 th amendment to apply to the actions of state governments is called a) Judicial review b) Incorporation c) Broad construction d) Federalism e) Stare decisis FRQ Practice 1. The 1st amendment includes 2 clauses relating to the freedom of religion a) Select one of the following cases and identify the 1st amendment clause upon which the United States Supreme Court based its decision Engel v. Vitale (School Prayer)

Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private religious schools) b) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (a) c) Select one of the following cases and identify the 1st amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision Reynolds v. US (Polygamy) Oregon v. Smith (Drug use in religious ceremonies) d) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (c) e) Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the US. Describe 2 ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of Supreme Court decisions.

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