Chapter 9 Review Video - Mr. Spinrad's Social Studies Classes
obstarczyk.weebly.com Americas History, 8th Edition, Chapter 10 A Democratic Revolution (1800 1844) The Rise of Popular Politics, 1810 - 1828 The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties The Rise of Democracy: More Americans (white males) participated in politics Property requirements and taxpaying requirements disappeared in many states Western states gain more prominence Parties Take Command: Martin Van Buren helped introduce political machines rewarded supporters with jobs (patronage, spoils system)
The Election of 1824 (The Corrupt Bargain): 4 candidates for the election of 1824 None win an electoral majority, although Andrew Jackson has most electoral and popular votes According to the 12th Amendment, the House would then decide on the top 3 candidates Henry Clay (Speaker of the House), finished 4 th and was out of the running He threw his support behind JQA Adams becomes president, Henry Clay becomes his Secretary of State (stepping stone to the presidency) The Rise of Popular Politics, 1810 - 1828 The Last Notable President: JQA JQA favored the American System 3 parts internal improvements, tariffs, BUS
The Fate of Adamss Policies: Many Jacksonians rejected the American System The Tariff Battle: Tariff of Abominations (1828): Raised tariff rates drastically Hated by South Favored by manufacturers in NE The Democracy and the Election of 1828 John C. Calhoun ran as Jacksons VP Increased voter turnout in 1828 (Jackson won by a large margin) The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829 1837 Jacksons Agenda: Rotation and Decentralization:
Kitchen Cabinet: Group of official and unofficial advisors to Jackson The Tariff and Nullification: Slave owners feared high tariffs -> feared that slavery would be outlawed next John C. Calhoun (sitting VP) Wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) Urged states to nullify the Tariff of Abominations Argued since the states created the federal government, they had the ability to nullify federal laws Drew on VA and KY Resolutions Webster-Hayne Debate: States Rights (Hayne) v. National Power (Webster) Hayne advocated nullification Second Reply to Hayne Webster advocated national power Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.
Compromise Tariff of 1833 (Henry Clay): Reduced tariff rates by 10% per year for 8 years Force Bill: President could use military in future to collect tariffs The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829 1837 The Bank War: Nicholas Biddle: President of the BUS 1832 veto: Jackson vetoes the re-charter of the BUS (BUS would expire in 1836) Removal of Bank Deposits:
Jackson removed all government deposits from the BUS and placed in state pet banks Biddle called in loans -> economic crisis ensues Roger B. Taney Jacksons Treasury Secretary, appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court after Marshall died (1835) The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829 1837 Indian Removal Jackson advocated removal of Natives west of Mississippi River 5 Civilized Tribes Located in the South GA, AL, MS, FL Indian Removal Act (1830) Aimed to move southern tribes to west of MS River
Worcester v. Georgia (1832) Supreme Court stated Natives could NOT be forced to move Jackson ignores the decision Trail of Tears: Winter of 1838 Forced removal of 1,000s of Natives Thousands died during or shortly after arriving out west The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829 1837 The Jacksonian Impact: Jackson drastically increased the power of the executive branch The Taney Court: Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837): Contracts could be breached if it benefited the community
In essence, it reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward Class, Culture, and the Second Party System The Whig Worldview: Formed in response to King Andrew I Favored strong central government Promoted industry and internal improvements (especially in the West) Anti-Masons Become Whigs: 1st 3rd Party Anti-secret society Election of 1836: MVB vs. several Whigs (hope to send to the House a la 1828)
MVB wins, is plagued by the Panic of 1837: Causes: Overspeculation, crop failures, panics in Europe Effects: 100s of banks failed, unemployment grew, prices of land dropped Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Election of 1840 MVB v. Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Log Cabins and Hard Cider Get the ball rolling WHH dies 30 days into his presidency Tyler His Ascendency Democrat at heart, hated Jackson Once in office, Tyler rejected many Whig programs, became a
president without a party Ethnocultural politics voting along ethnic and/or religious lines Irish, Germans, and Catholics tended to vote Democratic Quick Review Corrupt Bargain of 1824 Jacksonian Democracy = increased suffrage for white males Tariff of Abominations Nullification Crisis Bank War Formation of the Whigs Indian Removal Act -> Trail of Tears
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