Chapter 9- Aims, Goals, Objectives Aims of Education General statements that provide shape and direction Starting points that suggest an ideal or inspirational vision of the good Guides for the educational process
Sources of Aims Spencers Report Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education The Purpose of Education in American Democracy Education for All American Youth The Central Purpose of American Education A Nation at Risk Goals of Education
Statements of purpose with some outcome in mind Address certain characteristics of the learner who attains the goals Desired outcomes for students as a result of experiencing the curriculum Derived from various aims Levels of Goals Aims become goals when they become
more specific and refer to a particular school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculum Formulating Goals Timelessness Address the needs of society, of students, or the particular community Objectives
More specific statements of the outcomes of the curriculum or project being considered Statements that enable curriculum decision makers to identify the particular intent of a particular action Philosophy Aims Goals Objectives Types of Educational Objectives Program Objectives Address subjects at particular grade levels
Course Objectives Relate to particular courses within grade levels Classroom Objectives Divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives Conceptions of Objectives Taba
School-wide outcomes Unit, course or grade level program outcomes Ornstein program objectives course objectives classroom objectives Posner and Rudnitsky Intended Learning Outcomes
Behavioral Objectives precise statements of outcomes in terms of observable behavior expected of students after instruction Nonbehavioral Objectives Examples: Appreciate, Know, Understand Guidelines for Formulating
Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Nondiscursive Communication Approaches to Educational Objectives
Behaviorist Managerial Systems Humanistic Reconceptualist
Behavioral technical/scientific concern for specificity
we can identify essential learnings compartmentalization of curriculum defined scope and sequence convergent emphasis on curricular learnings Systems/Managerial Systems and organizational Theories Interrelatedness of the parts of the organization Objectives are part of the total process of decision making and curriculum implementation
Management by objectives Curriculum as a system of related components Humanistic Focus on the person Personal growth, joy of learning, respect for others Curriculum seen as divergent Opportunities for students to explore, to become self-directed
Reconceptualists Political and social posture with a theoretical critique Empower individual to be more fully human, socially sensitive, and existential Curriculum is emergent- concern with those processes that allow for control of ones learning
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