Chapter 7 Corporate Strategy - Texas Tech University
Daniel Crawford Mark Engelhardt Chase Barlow Alex Bregger CHAPTER 7 CORPORATE STRATEGY Corporate Strategy
Corporate strategy is concerned with where the firm competes whereas business strategy is concerned with how a firm competes In this chapter we turn our attention to corporate strategy and the scope of the firms activities. These include: Corporate Strategy
Product Scope how specialized the firm is in terms of the range of products it supplies. (Coca Cola- soft drinks) (Gap Fashion retail) Vertical Scope the range of vertically linked activities the firm encompasses. (Exxon active supply chain) Geographical Scope the geographic spread of activities for the firm. (Global Vs. Local) Amazon Strategy
Product Scope: Amazon Prime, Amazon Fresh, Amazon Supply, Amazon Web Services, One Click Purchasing, Vertical Scope: Amazons goal is to own every step of the internet experience. (Cloud Computing) Geographical Scope: Amazon is a global company. Tesco Case
Tesco is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in London. The company was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen Tesco made a name for itself by developing a strategy of piling it high and selling it cheap in the 50s and 60s Tesco Case In 1973 Jack Cohen stepped down and
passed the torch to new management They decided to take on a new strategy and abandon the low price approach. Expanded the company through new formats; Tesco Extra, Tesco Express, new technology, and acquisition. Tesco Case Another change in management and the need to expand further ushered in more
new ideas. Tesco became first UK market to introduce loyalty cards. Tesco Direct mail ordering company. Tesco Personal Finance in 1997 Tesco Personal Finance Products initially offered: Credit cards, savings, and insurance. By 2008 Tesco decided to develop into a full scale bank, offering mortgages,
current accounts, and loans. By 2011 Tesco became third largest retailer In the world by turnover, behind Walmart and Carrefour. Tesco Strategy When the company would near its limits of growth. Executives would broaden its scope: Through the use of diversification they extending its product offerings Adapting and changing to consumer tastes Building its capabilities in house instead of
outsourcing. The Scope of the Firm Deciding what business are we in? Corporate strategic decisions encompasses both firms product range and extent of involvement in the value chain Can be defined broadly or narrowly
Some exclusively focus on one narrow part of the supply chain, other will extend reach across many supply chain Key concepts for analyzing firm scope Key concepts 1. Economics of Scope 2. Transaction Costs 3.
Costs of Corporate Complexity Economics of scope The cost economies from increasing the output of multiple products Economies of scope exists when using a resource across multiple activities uses less of that resource than when the activities are carried out independently This creates the potential for multibusiness firms to gain cost advantage over more specialized businesses
Capabilities vs. Resources Tangible resources Shared service organizations Intangible resources Brand extension Organizational capabilities Can be exploited by simply selling or licensing the use of the resource or capability
Transaction costs Forms of Economic Organization Market Mechanism (visible) Administrative Mechanism (invisible) Firms and markets may be viewed as alternative forms for
organizing production Firms are not essential for organizing production Mainframes vs. PCs If transaction costs of organizing across markets is higher than administrative costs then, we can expect coordination of productive activity to be internalized within firms Technology: major source of falling administrative costs Vertical integration doesnt reduce/ eliminate all transaction costs Costs of Corporate Complexity Extending firms scope of operations by engaging in additional business activities,
can reduce transaction costs This incurs additional management costs Can outweigh cost savings Usually requires more organizational capabilities Diversification The expansion of an existing firm into another product line or field of operation Unrelated (conglomerate)
diversification Related (concentric) diversification Costs and Benefits Growth Risk Reduction Value Creation Economies of Scope Internal Labor Markets
Benefits Sometimes against the shareholders interests Transaction Costs Politicized investment allocation Costs Will diversification truly create shareholder value?
Attractiveness and cost-of-entry tests The firm faces the challenge of entering the new industry The cost of entry may counteract the attractiveness of the industry Better-off test Will the firm be any more profitable? Economies of scope and transaction
costs Will diversification be more profitable than licensing? Diversification and performance How will the diversified firm perform compared to the specialized firm? Organizational complexity Turbulence of the business environment Recent Trends in Diversification
Firms in mature industrialized nations have shied away from unrelated diversification Invested more in their core business While diversification in industrialized nations is shrinking, more conglomerates are being formed in developing nations Technology may make diversification more attractive in the future
Vertical Integration A firms ownership of vertically related activities Indicated by: ratio of a firms value added to its sales revenue (how much it makes rather than buys) Benefits & Costs Benefits Cost savings from physical integration of
processes Ex: linking the two stages of steel sheet production (production & rolling into sheet) at a single location saves energy & transportation costs Costs Single supplier/Single Buyer No market price; all
depends on relative bargaining power Transaction- specific investments result in high transaction costs between both parties Optimal Scale Example: FedEx would not produce their delivery trucks in-house to avoid
transaction-specific investments but rather to avoid mass inefficiency Amazon does not produce their own products because they simply do not possess the optimal scale needed for proper efficiency Designing Vertical Relationships 1. Classified in relation to TWO characteristics: Extent to which buyer/ 2. Formality of Relationship
seller commit Long-term/Franchise: resources to complex written agreements relationship Spot contracts: bound by Arms length/spot contracts: involve no resource commitment beyond single deal Vertical Integration: involves substantial investment
formalities of common law Collaborative Agreements: informal Vertical Integration: at the discretion of the firms management Types of Vertical Relationships Spot Contracts: one time transaction, requiring no subsequent transactions
Relational Contracts: No written contract; high flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances Long-term Contracts: Involve series of transactions over time with specifications to each party
Franchising: Contractual agreement between business owner and a permitted investor Recent Trends in Vertical Integration Past 25 years: Massive shift from spot contracts to long-term collaborations with fewer suppliers
Outsourcing Involves outsourcings entire chunks of the value chain rather than individual components or services Virtual corporation: coordination of activities through a network or suppliers & downstream partners Portfolio Planning GE/Mckinsey Matrix
Strategic variables based on industry attractiveness & competitive advantage Analysis guides: Allocation of resources between the business Formulating business unit strategy: strategic positioning & opportunities Analyzing portfolio balance: cash flow generation & growth prospects Setting performance targets Ashridge Portfolio Display: Potential for Patenting Advantage
Summary Corp. Strategy: about deciding which business segment to engage in Clear, long term adaptation to market conditions through diversification Careful selection deciding which parts of value chain to engage in Outsource/vertically integrate/specific contracts
Basic Competitive Strategies: Value Disciplines Operational excellence Superior value via price and convenience Customer intimacy Superior value by means of building strong relationships with buyers and satisfying needs Product leadership Superior value via product innovation 18- * Figure 18-3: Hypothetical...
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