CHAPTER 7: Ancient greeks

CHAPTER 7: Ancient greeks

CHAPTER 8: ANCIENT GREEKS LESSON 1: THE GREEK CULTURE GREEK BELIEFS CITY-STATES SEPARATED POLITICALLY BUT SHARED A COMMON CULTURE. SAME LANGUAGES, BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS, AND MYTHS WHO WERE THE GREEK GODS? GODS LOOK AND ACT LIKE HUMAN BEINGS. MARRY AND HAVE CHILDREN AND OFTEN TIMES WITH ACT LIKE THEM BY PLAYING TRICKS ON EACH OTHER. 12 MOST IMPORTANT GODS AND GODDESSES LIVED ON MOUNT OLYMPUS GODS COULD COME AND GO AS THEY PLEASED BUT HUMANS STOPPED AT GATES

OF CLOUDS ZEUS: KING GOD ATHENA- GODDESS OF WISDOM AND CRAFTS APOLLO- GOD OF SUN AND POETRY APHRODITE- GODDESS OF LOVE ARES- GOD OF WAR POSEIDON- GOD OF THE SEAS AND EARTHQUAKES ALL CITY-STATES WORSHIP ZEUS AND THEN PICK ONE GOD AS PROTECTOR. TO WIN FAVOR OF GODS, PEOPLE PERFORM RITUALS (AN ACTION THAT IS PART OF A RELIGIOUS CEREMONY. WITH TEMPLES AND AT HOME, OFFERED GIFTS TO THE GODS, AND FESTIVALS

HONORING GODS AND GODDESSES. HELD FEASTS AND SACRIFICES EVERY 4 YEARS ATHLETES COMPETE IN ATHLETIC COMPETITION FOR GLORY OF ZEUS AND HELD AT CITY OF OLYMPIA CALLED THE OLYMPIC GAMES BEGINNING IN 776 B.C. ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES TOOK PLACE FOR OVER 1,000 YEARS 1896 FIRST MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES. GREEK ORACLES: BELIEVED EVERYONE HAVE A FATE OR DESTINY ALSO IN PROPHECY (PREDICTION ABOUT THE FUTURE) GODS GAVE PROPHECIES TO WARN PEOPLE ABOUT THE FUTURE IN TIME TO CHANGE IT.

ORACLE: A SACRED SHRINE WHERE A PRIEST OR PRIESTESS SPOKE FOR A GOD OR GODDESS. MOST FAMOUS AT TEMPLE OF APOLLO AT DELPHI PRIESTESS SIT IN STOOL IN CHAMBER AND LISTENED TO QUESTIONS PRIESTS TRANSLATE HER ANSWERS LEADERS AND MESSENGERS TRAVELED TO DELPHI TO ASK FOR ADVICE. Temple of Apollo in Delphi EPICS AND FABIES GREEK POEMS AND STORIES OLDEST LITERATURE IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION USED AS MODELS FOR WRITING MORE MODERN WORKS

EX: SHAKESPEARE- BORROWED PLOTS AND SETTINGS FOR DRAMAS, ORGANIZED HIS PLAYS SIMILAR TO HOW GREEKS ORGANIZED THEIRS. FIRST STORIES WERE EPICS- THE ILLIAD AND THE ODYSSEY COMPOSED BY HOMER DURING THE 700S B.C. EPICS BASED ON STORIES ABOUT A WAR BETWEEN GREECE AND CITY OF TROY THE TROJAN HORSE ILLIAD: PRINCE OF TROY FALLS IN LOVE WITH HELEN, WIFE OF A GREEK KING HE KIDNAPS HER AND BY DOING SO THE GREEKS GET ANGRY AND ATTACK TROY GREEKS CANT GET IN SO THEY TRY TRICKING THE TROJANS BY

CONSTRUCTING A HOLLOW WOODEN HORSE. TRICK TROJANS INTO BELIEVING THEY HAVE WON, LET THE HORSE IN AND GREEK INVADE THE CITY. ODYSSEY: STORY OF ODYSSEUS, A GREEK HERO FROM THE TROJAN WAR. DESCRIBES HIS TRIP HOME AFTER THE TROJAN WAR FACES STORMS, MONSTERS, AND WITCHES RETURNS HOME TO WIFE AFTER 10 YEARS AESOPS FABLES THE FOX AND THE GRAPES OR THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF LIVED AND TOLD STORIES IN 550 B.C. DONT BELIEVED HE EXISTED BUT STORIES DUE AND KNOWN AS FABLES (A SHORT TALE THAT TEACHERS A LESSON)

ANIMALS SPEAK AND ACT LIKE PEOPLE; STORIES MEANT TO BE FUNNY AND TEACH A LESSON OR TRUTH. THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE STORIES TOLD DURING THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE (ABOUT 500 B.C.- 300 B.C.) PART OF GREEK ORAL TRADITION FOX AND THE GRAPES HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=TEIJ7FAK6EU THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=MEZE2QPLPH0 ILLIAD:

HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=CX0TQOJZNIU OYDESSY: HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=BBGO0T-JE8A THE IMPACT OF GREEK DRAMA CREATED AND PERFORMED THE FIRST DRAMAS DRAMA: STORY TOLD MAINLY THROUGH THE WORDS AND ACTIONS OF A CAST OF CHARACTERS. TWO CATEGORIES- TRAGEDY AND COMEDY FIFTH CENTURY B.C.: FOUR WRITERS EMERGED AS GREATEST GREEK DRAMATISTS OR WRITERS AESCHYLUS, SOPHOCLES, EURIPIDES, AND ARISTOPHANES

AESCHYLUS THE EARLIEST GREEK DRAMATIST WROTE ORESTEIA- SET OF THREE PLAYS GREEK KINGS RETURN FROM TROJAN WAR AND TROUBLES TO FOLLOW ABOUT REVENGE AND MURDER GOOD TRIUMPHS OVER EVIL SOPHOCLES: GREAT ATHENIAN WRITER IN PLAYS ACCEPTED SUFFERING AS WAY OF LIFE STRESSED COURAGE AND UNDERSTANDING ANTIGONE: IS IT BETTER TO OBEY OR DO WHAT WE BELIEVE TO BE RIGHT? EURIPIDES: WROTE ABOUT ORDINARY HUMAN BEINGS IN REALISTIC SITUATIONS

ANCIENT GREECE ONLY MEN COULD BE ACTORS MOST FAMOUS GREEK WRITER WAS ARISTOPHANES- WORK FULL OF SATIRE HOW GREEK DRAMA DEVELOPED: FORM OF SHOWING LOYALTY TO CITY-STATES CHORUS PRESENTED STORY THROUGH SINGING AND DANCING DRAMAS THEN USE MANY ACTORS CREATING ACTION AND CONFLICTS GREEK ART AND ARCHITECTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEK ART BECAME ARTISTIC STYLE WE NOW CALL CLASSICAL EVERY GREEK CITY-STATE HAVE TEMPLE DEDICATED TO GOD OR GODDESS SCULPTURES DECORATE TEMPLES- HUMAN BODY FAVORITE SUBJECT OF GREEK ARTISTS

CHAPTER 8: ANCIENT GREEKS LESSON 2: THE GREEK MIND GREEK THINKERS 500 B.C. AND350 B.C. GOLDEN AGE WHERE ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND LITERATURE FLOURISHED GREAT TIME FOR THINKERS ONE TYPE OF THINKER AS INVOLVED IN CREATING A NEW BODY OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWN AS PHILOSOPHERS. THEY CREATED PHILOSOPHY- LOVE OF WISDOM DEVELOPED THE STUDY OF HISTORY, POLITICAL SCIENCE, BIOLOGY, AN

LOGIC THE SOPHISTS GROUP THAT TRAVELED FROM POLIS TO POLIS MADE LIVING THROUGH TEACHING TAUGHT MATH, SCIENCE, AND HISTORY BUT WERE BEST KNOWN FOR TEACHING RHETORIC (ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING AND DEBATE) DID NOT BELIEVE GOD INFLUENCED ACTIONS AND REJECTED IDEA IF ABSOLUTE RIGHT OR WRONG. ACCEPTED MONEY FOR TEACHINGS OTHER PHILOSOPHERS NOT AGREE AND BELIEVED THEY LACKED IDEALS AND VALUES. WHO WAS SOCRATES?

ORIGINALLY A SCULPTOR BUT LOVED PHILOSOPHY LIVED IN ATHENS AND SPENT MOST OF TIME TEACHING INFORMATION FOUND IN STUDENT WRITING NOT OFFICIAL RECORDS HARSH CRITIC OF SOPHISTS BELIEVED IN ABSOLUTE TRUTH AND ALL REAL KNOWLEDGE WITHIN EACH PERSON SOCRATIC METHOD: PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD OF QUESTIONING TO GAIN TRUTH. NO LECTURE, JUST QUESTIONS UNTIL STUDENTS ANSWERED SOME ATHENIAN LEADERS FEARED THIS BEFORE ATHENIANS COULD SPEAK FREELY BUT WHEN THEY LOST THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, NEW LEADERS LIMITED THEIR FREEDOM

399 B.C. SOCRATES WAS ARRESTED CHARGED WITH URGING YOUNG PEOPLE TO REBEL AGAINST THE GOVT FOUND GUILTY AND SENTENCED TO DEATH GIVEN OPPORTUNITY TO LEAVE ATHENS BUT STAYED AND GAVE ONE MORE SPEECH PLATOS IDEAS: ONE OF SOCRATES STUDENTS BECAME A TEACHER AND FOUND A SCHOOL NAMED THE ACADEMY RECORDED HIS IDEAS THE REPUBLIC : IDEAL SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT SOCIETY ORGANIZED INTO THREE GROUPS PHILOSOPHER KINGS- RULED WITH LOGIC AND WISDOM WARRIORS: DEFENED SOCIETY THROUGH THE USE OF FORCE

REST OF THE PEOPLE: PRODUCE FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER NOTED DISLIKE OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY BELIEVED COMMON PEOPLE DID NOT THINK FOR THEMSELVES AND COULD BE EASILY INFLUENCED INTO MAKING DECISIONS BELIEVED PHILOSOPHER KINGS WERE INTELLIGENT AND WELL-EDUCATED THOUGHT THEY WOULD PLACE THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY AHEAD OF THEIR OWN NEEDS. BUT WAS WILLING TO GRANT MORE RIGHTS TO WOMEN THAT THEY SHOULD HAVE THE SAME OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION AND JOBS THAT MEN HAVE. WHO WAS ARISTOTLE? WROTE MORE THAN 200 WORKS ON GOVERNMENT, ASTRONOMY, AND POLITICAL

SCIENCE 335 B.C. STARTED A SCHOOL CALLED THE LYCEUM TAUGHT STUDENTS THE GOLDEN MEAN PEOPLE SHOULD LIVE MODERATELY LOVED SCIENCE- STUDIED THE STARS, PLANTS, AND ANIMALS (CAREFULLY RECORDED OBSERVATIONS) CLASSIFIED THINGS ACCORDING TO SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES STUDIED AND COMPARED THE GOVERNMENTS OF DIFFERENT CITY-STATES TO TRY AND FIND THE BEST POLITICAL SYSTEM POLITICS: DIVIDED GOVERNMENT INTO THREE TYPES MONARCHY: RULE BY ONE PERSON OLIGARCHY: RULE BY A FEW PEOPLE DEMOCRACY: RULE BY MANY

BEST GOVERNMENT HAS FEATURES OF ALL THREE CHIEF EXECUTIVE WOULD SERVE AS HEAD OF STATE COUNCIL OR LEGISLATURE WOULD ASSIST THE LEADER AND SUPPORTED BY THE PEOPLE INFLUENCED OUR GOVT NEW HISTORY AND SCIENCE IDEAS: INVESTIGATED THE NATURAL WORLD THE GREEKS AND HISTORY BELIEVED LEGENDS AND MYTHS WERE TRUE 435 B.C. GREEK THINKER HERODOTUS WROTE A HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN WARS

GODS PLAYED A ROLE BUT TRIED TO SEPARATE FACT FROM FICTION QUESTIONED MANY PEOPLE TO GET INFORMATION AND INVESTIGATED THEIR TRUTHFULNESS OF THE SOURCES CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF HISTORY THUCYDIDES: GENERAL IN THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR TWO GREEK CITY-STATES OF ATHENS AND SPARTA FOUGHT IN THIS CONFLICT FOR 30 YEARS WAR TO BE A MAJOR EVENT IN WORLD HISTORY THE HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR GODS NOT AFFECT HUMAN HISTORY ACCURATE AND IMPARTIAL EXPLORE CAUSES AND EFFECTS BELIEVE PEOPLE LEARN FROM THE PAST

THE FIRST SCIENTISTS BELIEVED NATURAL EVENTS COULD BE EXPLAINED LOGICALLY THALES: FIRST IMPORTANT GREEK SCIENTIST BORN IN MID 600S B.C. ASTRONOMY AND MATHEMATICS DISCOVERIES BY OBSERVING AND THINKING PYTHAGORAS: UNIVERSE FOLLOWS SAME LAWS THAT GOVERN MUSIC AND NUMBERS ALL RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE EXPRESSED IN NUMBERS PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM

ANCIENT GREEK MEDICINE: HIPPOCRATES- FATHER OF MEDICINE DISEASES FROM NATURAL CAUSES TRAVELED TO HELP THE SICK, DIAGNOSED DIFFERENT DISEASES, AND DISCOVERED OWN TREATMENTS HIPPOCRATIC OATH

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