Chapter 5

Chapter 5

MCSE GUIDE TO MICROSOFT WINDOWS 7 Chapter 5 Managing File Systems 2 Objectives Understand file system features and limits in Windows 7 Understand file system management tasks Understand file and folder attributes used in the FAT and

NTFS file systems Understand file and folder permissions, permission scope and inheritance, plus the impact of ownership and moving or copying content Understand how to use previous versions of files 3 Supported File Systems File system Allows OS to store and organize files on a hard disk

Windows 7 supports four file systems File Allocation Table NT File System Universal Disk Format CDFS File System Extended File Allocation Table 4 File Allocation Table File Allocation Table (FAT) Earliest file system used for hard disks by the MS-DOS operating

system Versions of FAT FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 5 File Allocation Table (cont'd.) FAT limitations Limited fault tolerance Inefficient storage

Limited security FAT benefits Supported by many legacy operating systems Simple technology Adequate when file and folder requirements are simple Suitable for removable media 6 New Technology File System New Technology File System (NTFS) First introduced with Windows NT

NTFS partitions are theoretically limited to 256 Terabytes Each operating system that supports NTFS is designed for a specific version of NTFS NTFS stores files very similar to FAT Data is secure, reliably managed, and allowed to grow 7 New Technology File System (cont'd.) NTFS advantages Log file and checkpoint consistency checks

Automatic bad cluster management Transactional NTFS File names stored in Unicode and 8.3 DOS format Alternate data streams Encrypted File System (EFS) File and folder permissions Compression Disk quotas Shrinkable/extendable partitions and volumes Mount points Sparse files

8 New Technology File System (cont'd.) Log File and Checkpoint Consistency Checks Information about files and folders stored on the disk is kept in a special file Called the Master File Table (MFT) System files are hidden from general browsing NTFS system files are protected by a transactional file system Changes made to the NTFS system files can be rolled back to a

known good state 9 New Technology File System (cont'd.) Automatic Bad Cluster Management Bad Cluster File keeps a record of all the clusters that are considered unusable If the bad cluster is currently used by a file or folder OS will try to move that data to a different cluster 10

New Technology File System (cont'd.) Transactional NTFS Similar to the transactional system used to protect NTFS system files Utilize change logs and checkpoints to validate that updates have successfully completed File Names Stored in Unicode and 8.3 DOS Format Windows 7 can use Unicode characters in the filename Each file has two names assigned to it Long filename 8.3 filename compatible with MS-DOS

11 New Technology File System (cont'd.) Alternate Data Streams NTFS file system can have multiple streams of data associated with it Applications can create additional named streams and link them to the file Encrypted File System NTFS files can be encrypted to protect the information from

unauthorized users Valuable form of protection for local file access Digital encryption keys from each user are implemented to encrypt and decrypt the file 12 New Technology File System (cont'd.) File and Folder Permissions Each file and folder on an NTFS file system has its own list of permissions Determine the actions that users or groups are allowed to perform with

that item List of permissions is known as the Access Control List (ACL) ACL permissions are stored in NTFS system files hidden on the partition itself Compression Can compress files to save space on NTFS volumes New Technology File System (cont'd.) Disk Quotas

Amount of disk space used by a user By default, disk quota limits are not enabled for NTFS partitions Set using the Disk Management console Shrinkable/Extendable Partitions and Volumes File system can adapt when

the partition or volume is resized 14 New Technology File System (cont'd.) Volume Mount Points Allow an empty folder in an NTFS-formatted file system to point to another partition or volume in the local computer Created with the Disk Management console Different mount points can point to the same target partition or volume

Symbolic Links Introduced with Windows Vista Point to a file or folder located somewhere other than that folder 15 New Technology File System (cont'd.) Sparse Files Large portions of a sparse file contain bytes with the value of zero Contain nonzero data and a list that identifies where ranges of empty data occur between the nonzero data Space occupied in the disk corresponds only to the nonzero part

16 Universal Disk Format Universal Disk Format (UDF) File system defined by the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) OSTA was created to promote the use of recordable optical technologies and products Developed as a standard to allow file interchange between different operating systems Ideal for storing files on portable CD-ROM and DVD media

UDF is an evolving specification and several versions are defined by the OSTA 17 CDFS File System CD-ROM File System (CDFS) Legacy file system for read-only CD-ROM media Windows 7 supports CDFS for compatibility with older CD-ROM media

CDFS standard closely follows the ISO 9660 standard UDF is current preferred file system for CD media 18 Extended File Allocation Table Extended File Allocation Table (exFAT) New file system used by the manufacturer for large portable memory devices Recommended for volume sizes of 512 TB or less Can theoretically support a volume size equivalent to the sum total

of a billion blocks sized at 64 TB each Microsoft introduced native support for exFAT with Windows Vista Service Pack 1 19 File System Tasks Common file system changes Changing the assigned drive letter Converting the installed file system

20 Changing Drive Letters Drive letters Used by applications and users as a quick reference to locate files Can change the drive letter, or assign a new one, to a partition or volume Using the Disk Management console A single drive letter can only be assigned to one partition

or volume Can remove drive letters from a partition or volume 21 Assigning Drive Letters 22 Converting File Systems Steps to convert NTFS to FAT

Back up the data on the partition Reformat the partition with FAT or FAT32 Restore the data originally backed up from the NTFS partition Steps to convert FAT to NTFS Back up the data on the partition Ensure free space remains on the partition Convert partition using convert command-line utility Convert command-line utility has the syntax of convert drive_id /FS:NTFS Converting a partition requires that the convert utility runs

with full Administrative access To the local computer 23 File and Folder Attributes FAT and NTFS file systems use attributes To describe general information about a file or folder 24 File and Folder Attributes (cont'd.)

Details on the General tab for a file on a FAT file system Details on the General tab for a folder on a FAT file system File and Folder Attributes (cont'd.) Details for a file on an NTFS file system

Advanced attributes for a file on an NTFS file system File and Folder Attributes (cont'd.) Details for a folder on an NTFS file system Advanced attributes for a folder on an NTFS file system

27 Attribute Flags Attribute flags Control some aspects of how the operating system interacts with the object Read Only Flag will block changes to the contents of a file Flag is used to indicate that the folder is a system folder and should be treated differently

Archive Set by OS when a file or folder changes 28 Attribute Flags (cont'd.) 29 Attribute Flags (cont'd.) Archive (cont'd.) Indicates that the contents have changed since the last time the file

was backed up Hidden Set by user or OS to hide folders and files from user System Set by OS for specific folders and files 30 Attribute Flags (cont'd.) Compress Only supported on volumes and partitions formatted with NTFS

When a file is moved from its current location to a new location in the same NTFS partition Attributes do not change When copying compressed files Compress attribute on the file becomes the same as the target folders compress attribute setting 31 Attribute Flags (cont'd.)

Encrypt Only supported on volumes and partitions formatted with NTFS Folder or file that is set to be encrypted cannot be compressed Folder that is set as encrypted is not encrypted itself Only users with valid digital security keys can decrypt and access an encrypted files contents Encrypted file will remain encrypted unless: Encrypt attribute is disabled File is saved to a volume that does not support encrypt 32

File Certificate MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows 7 Warning of Loss of Encription 33 34 File and Folder Permissions Access Control List (ACL)

Collection of Access Control Entries (ACE) Identify a specific security identifier (that is, who) can perform a given action (that is, what) to a file or folder Used to specify what a user or group is allowed to do with the file or folder ACLs are supported by Windows 7 for the NTFS file system

35 Default Folder Permissions First level of folder in an NTFS partition is root folder Default permissions for the root folder Members of the Administrators group have full control OS has full control Members of Users group can read and execute programs Authenticated users can create folders in this folder Authenticated users can create files and write data in subfolders only

36 Default Folder Permissions (cont'd.) 37 Default Folder Permissions (cont'd.) Default permissions for C: subfolders Members of Administrators group have full control OS has full control Members of Users group can read and execute programs Authenticated users can create, modify, and delete files and folders

In this folder and its subfolders Additional folders and files inherit permissions from the parent Inheritance allows a permission setting to propagate to lower subfolders NTFS permissions are assigned using two formats NTFS standard permissions Individual NTFS permissions NTFS Standard Permissions

Collection of predetermined individual NTFS permissions Write Used for folders, allows new files and folders to be created in the current folder Used for files, allows file data to be rewritten Read Allows files and folder data, attributes, ownership, and security to be viewed NTFS Standard Permissions (cont'd.) List Folder Contents

Only applies to folders Allows files and folders contained in a folder to be listed Read & Execute Used for folders, allows read access to files and folders below this point Used for files, allows read access to the files information If it is an executable file, the user is allowed to run it NTFS Standard Permissions (cont'd.) Modify Allows the same actions as Write and Read & Execute permissions

combined Full Control Allows the same actions as Modify plus the ability to change permissions Also allows a user to take ownership Special Special permissions are the individual permissions that can be assigned Individual NTFS Permissions

Fine-tune access and control for files and folders Only visible when editing a permission entry in the advanced security view 42 Individual NTFS Permissions (cont'd.) 43 Permission Scope

Determines what other objects are impacted by the assigned permission For files, the scope is limited to this object only Scope for folders include: This folder only This folder, subfolders, and files This folder and subfolders This folder and files Subfolders and files only Subfolders only Files only

44 Permission Scope (cont'd.) 45 Permission Inheritance NTFS permissions for folders apply to the first folder on which they are used Permission propagates to all folders below that point

Inheritance can be blocked Once blocked, the object needs new permissions assigned to it Any file or folder can have additional permissions assigned directly to the object That combine with the inherited permissions 46 Effective Permissions Many items have an impact on calculating permissions

Permissions can be inherited or directly assigned Each permission has a scope that determines what range of objects it applies to Permissions can be allowed or denied Permissions can be applied to groups, and any member of that group receives those permissions Users can be members in multiple groups that have different permissions to the same object Owners of a file or folder have full control of the object Effective Permissions tab Helps to simplify the analysis of assigned permissions

Effective Permissions (cont'd.) Ownership Each NTFS file or folder has an owner Owner of a file or folder always has the ability to assign permissions to that file or folder Members of the Administrator group Have the right, by default, to assign or take ownership of a file or folder

Users with the Full control standard permission or the individual NTFS permission Take ownership Can also assume ownership of a file Ownership (cont'd.) Permission Changes When Content Is Copied or Moved Copy operations always create new versions of the content that is being copied

New versions will inherit the permission settings of the target location Move operations affect permissions differently Depending on the destination location relative to the source location Source and target locations on the same volume, no changes Source and target locations on different volumes, just like a copy operation Permission Strategy Considerations

Poorly designed permission strategy can quickly lead to problems Best practices Folder structure should be designed so that permissions can easily flow down Folder structure should have a specific permission strategy before

users are allowed to store files in it Specific permissions can be applied to a file or folder for a given user or group of users Exceptions to permissions can be made All folder permissions strategies should be tested Previous Versions Windows 7 includes a new Previous Versions tab Use this tab to restore a previous version of a file after it has been modified or deleted Previous versions of a file on the local computer are

generated by backup or shadow copies Shadow copies System in which the computer takes a snapshot of files at a specific point in time And then tracks changes to those files Previous Versions (cont'd.) Summary Primary file systems used to format bulk storage are FAT,

NTFS, and UDF Users and applications can use drive letters or mount points to access partitions and volumes NTFS allows special support for larger partitions, alternate data streams, sparse files, file names with special characters, and transactional reliability NTFS allows the use of symbolic links

Files stored in FAT and NTFS partitions use attributes to control and limit file access Summary (cont'd.) Given a NTFS formatted source location, a copy operation will create content in a destination location NTFS files and folders are protected by standard permissions Permissions strategies should be carefully considered and documented before they are implemented Previous Versions tab can be used to restore files from

backup or shadow copies

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