Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies VUS.2a impact of age of exploration by describing the characteristics of early exploration and evaluating the impact of European settlement in the Americas pg. 14 Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
German Friar Martin Luther nailed his protests against the Catholic church in 1517 starting the Protestant Reformation (95 Thesis) Denouncing the catholic church John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Luthers ideas w/ predestination God has chosen who will be saved & who wont. (Puritans were Calvinists) why be good? Calvinist doctrine swept England just as Henry VIII broke ties w/ Catholic church & began Church of England w/ himself as leader. Purification of Christianity Puritans Many Puritans came from depressed woolen districts so ideas
fed into the social unrest and provided spiritual comfort. Puritans were not happy that many catholic traditions were kept in Church of England service. (wanted total decatholicized religion) Puritans thought only visible saints should be admitted to Church & upset when saints had to share pews with the damned Puritans didnt want to separate from Anglican Church Puritan Colonies Religious motivation (not search for wealth) 2 English colonies: Plymouth & Massachusetts Bay King James viewed Puritans as a threat to his religious & political
authority why? & ordered them arrested & jailed. More threatening were Separatists (extreme Puritans): Pilgrims Pilgrims Most famous group of Puritan separatists fleeing King James royal wrath departed for Holland in 1608. (Happy in Holland but children losing Englishness so wanted to go to America) Holland separatists negotiated with VA Co. to secure rights to settle under its rule but after 65 days at sea they missed their destination & arrived off coast of New England in1620 with 102 people. (less than were separatists) (1 death & 1 birth) Didnt land at Plymouth Rock initially but Plymouth Bay (outside VA domain so became Squatters because w/
out legal right to the land)(upsetting to non-separatist almost mutinied because land grants in VA. Before landing signed Mayflower Compact (invaluable precedent for later written constitutions) = simple agreement to crude govt to submit to the will of the majority & basis for self Govt. signed by 41 adult males w/ rank of mister but not signed by 2 servants & 2 seamen. Promising step toward genuine self govt. Males were assembling to make own laws w/ open discussion town meetings govt power derives from consent of the governed not from God as some monarchist or
Absolutists believed Pilgrims First Winter Plymouth 1620-1621 only 44 of 102 survived. However when Mayflower sailed back w/ 2 seamen following spring no one went back. It is not with us as with other men, whom small things can discourage. Next fall brought successful harvests w/ 1st Thanksgiving Day in New England. Economy founded on fur, fish & lumber. Elected governor 30 times William Bradford self taught scholar w/ biggest fear of non puritans might corrupt his godly experiment. Proved settlement could exist uninviting region. Help from Indian named Squanto whose tribe
(Patuxet) was wiped out by disease. He was spared their fate because he was enslaved taken to Europe where he learned English to only return & find his people gone. Converted to Catholism when abducted by Spanish & attempted to be sold into slavery but catholic frior (he became pilgrims interpreter & taught them how to plant) Never economically or numerically important: pop 7,000 by 1691. (still squatters & charterless) merges w/ giant neighbor Massachusetts Bay Colony (big morally & spirtually) show America story of us 8:24 saved him Massachusett Back in England (moderate puritans) tried to fix church of England from within, gathering support s Bay Colony
in Parliament. Feeling threatened, Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 & sanctioned puritan persecutions. Fearing for their faith, secured a royal charter to form Massachusetts Bay Colony in infertile Massachusetts area w/ Boston becoming its hub. Bringing their charter w/ them they used it as a kind of constitution. Back in England Archbishop called them swine which rooted in Gods vineyard. 11 vessels & thousand settlers (largest & most influential English colony)more coming in next decades when more religious turmoil in England
existed. =great migration 70 thousand Great English/ Puritan Migration 1630-1642 Many attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies esp Barbados Pious, humorless, & extremely stern to dissenters Believed he had a calling/ served for 19 yrs/fish & ships important industries Building the Bay Colony Benefited from shared sense of purpose among = believed they had a covenant w/ God to build a holy society. John
Winthrop: (We shall be the city on the hill)(a beacon to humanity) Adult males who belonged to Puritan congregation (Congregational Church as it became called) were extended freemen rights. 2/5 of Adult males. (more than in England but not yet democratic) Unchurched men & women remained voteless. However town govts were all male property holders enjoyed benefit of publicly discussing issues & voting w/ majority rule. (Direct Democracy) Somewhat liberal but not democratic. Governor Winthrop distrusted democracy (meanest & worst form of govt) Only visible saints could be freemen. And only freemen could participate in the representative assembly Purpose of govt was to enforce Gods laws, which applied to believers and non-believers. But all paid taxes for the govt supported church. Church leaders yielded enormous influence in the Bible Commonwealth
Differences between New England & Chesapeake: Both separatists (Pilgrims) & Congregationalists (Massachusetts Bay) didnt tolerate religious freedom because of the covenant w/ God. (although both experienced & fled religious persecution) Strict principles dictated their daily lives (protestant work ethic) & its relationship to eventual development of a market economy 4th period stopped here)Many trace the roots of the Civil War w/ founding of Chesapeake & southern region w/ aristocracy & slave labor v. New England becoming the commercial center w/ the individual at the center Entire families immigrated in New England v. single males in Chesapeake Climate in New England more hospitable so lived longer, had larger families & had a strong sense of community.
Absence of Tobacco caused New Englanders to settle in towns closer to one another. While both were religious, New Englanders were more religious. New England farms were small & required less labor so slavery rare. Roger Williams & Rhode Island Roger Williams a minister in Salem Bay taught controversial principles: separation of Church & State (thought it improper for civil rulers to punish settlers for religious violations)wanted a clean break from corrupt Anglican church, & challenged Bay Colony Charter since King didnt pay Indians for land. Puritans tried & found him guilty of
disseminating new & dangerous opinions. 1636 they Banished Williams, wanted him to return to England but w/ help from friendly Indian fled to Rhode Island & founded a new colony. Back in Boston Puritans called RI: the sewer where the Lords Debris had RI charter allowed: for free exercise of Religion (even Catholics & Jews), 1st Amendment est Free Exercise Clause & Est Clause didnt require voters to be church members or property owners. no oaths of religious beliefs, What is all this no mandatory attendance at church considered no taxes to support church, today?
Opposed special privilege of any sort. Much freedom of opportunity (Most liberal colony in new) Strongly individualistic & stubbornly independent little Rhody traditional home of the otherwise minded Began as squatter colony 1636 but finally received charter from Parliament in 1644. In Providence, RI founded 1st Baptist Church in America. Anne Hutchinson 3rd period stopped here Antinomianism =
Known for her outspoken critiques of Puritans & helps give birth to Freedom of Religion: challenged authority of clergy & gender roles Left RI for NY w/ 14 kids & husband while pregnant but killed by Indians. J.Winthrop: Gods hand in her fate Government Supported Church Religious leaders yielded enormous power They influenced admission to church holding public interrogations of people claiming conversions. John Cotton prominent clergy member was an outspoken advocate of independent church governance (congregation had the right to hire & fire its minister and to set his salary &
clergymen were barred from holding political office) In a limited way, endorsed idea of separation of church & state (building on idea) New England Spreads Boston Puritans led by Rev. out: Hartford, CT Thomas Hooker swarmed into Hartford area of CT. 1635-36 (one of few fertile areas of New England along the CT River) CT Blue law state -Sunday Rules = mandatory church attendance & no work or play on Sunday, no kissing in public
Est. Fundamental Orders (precursor to CTs Constitution) = The first written constitution in the then-British colonies. The reason for Connecticut's nickname, "the Constitution State". New Haven, CT Another community founded by Puritans wanted closer church-government relationship. Only squatters w/ out a charter & fell out of favor w/ King Charles when they harbored 2 judges who put his father to death. Charles II merged New Haven
with more democratic settlements in CT Valley Far to the North (Maine) & (New Hampshire) Fisherman and fur traders in ME & NH for dozens of yrs before Plymouth. ME: Attempts at colonization in 1623 by Sir Ferdinando Gorges but absorbed by Massachusetts Bay after purchase by Gorges Heirs in 1677. Remains part of Mass for 150 yrs. NH: King annoyed by Mass
greed using strained interpretation of charter to absorb NH into Mass so he separated NH from Mass in 1670 into royal colony Indians in New England weak due to epidemic Puritans versus Indians: Pequot War disease by contact w/ English fishermen killing 1636-38 75% before Plymouth landing in 1620. At 1st befriended settlers but as more settlers arrived & Indians pushed inland confrontation began. CT Valley was fertile region w/ lots of access to sea for trade but already inhabited by Pequots. (conflict over land) Pequots attacked a settlement in Wakefield
killing 9 colonist, Mass Bay Colony retaliated by burning Pequot village & shooting fleeing victims killing 400 many women & children. Criticized by England, Puritans made efforts at converting remaining Indians to Christianity (not many #s) Responding to attempts to Christianize the Indians & Intertribal Unity to resist convert their culture & give up tribal clothing etc. w/ Praying towns English Encroachment: They had become increasingly dependent on English King Philips War goods, food, and weapons, and their bargaining power show video youtube 7min diminished as the fur trade dried up, tribal lands were sold. Pokunoket chief Metacom a.k.a. King Philip led a
bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes (Pan-Indian alliance) mounted coordinated attacks on 52 English towns destroying 12 completely causing refugees to flee to Boston. (hundreds of colonists & Indians died) The war had lasted 14 months. The New England colonists had lost 600 Metacoms wife & son were captured & sold into slavery and Metacom captured beheaded. Head carried on a pike back to Plymouth mounted & displayed for years. King Philips War marks the end of formidable Native American presence among the New England colonists. With England engrossed in Civil War, King paid little Seeds of attention to colonies (Salutary Neglect) Colonial Unity: 4 colonies banded together in a confederation for New England
defense purposes against potential foes: Indians, Confederation French & Dutch. No matter the size of the colony each had 2 votes. 1643-1684 (Mass Bay HUGE upset by this ) Exclusive Puritan Club: 2 MA colonies & the 2 CT colonies. Left out RI & ME because they harbored heretics. (MA tried to dominate causing its end) 1st milestone toward colonial unity. When Charles II restored, & dismantled Confederation. (caused much strain) (they had learned to manage their own affairs) MA ignored orders. Charles reacted to this defiance by g. 39 primary source: legalizing the squatter settlements in CT & RI United States History reparing for Advan plac (attempting to pit one colony against the other) xam Then in 1684 Charles II revoked Bay Colony charter.
Dominion of New England Created by king aimed at building up colonial defense in event of war w/ Indians or etc. (replace Confederation) navigational laws-Colonists cant trade w/ anyone except England (smuggling became a common occupation) Mercantilism-colonies exist for Mother country only Also curbed town meetings, restrictions on courts, the press & schools and revoked all land titles. Collapsed w/ Glorious Revolution (dethroning Catholic James & inviting William & Mary and Constitutional Govt). MA w/ out charter made a Royal colony w/ new charter & new royal governor in 1691
Loss of original charter was staggering blow where Proud Puritans never fully recovered. (now privilege of voting once only for church members now to be enjoyed by all qualified male property owners.) Salutary Neglect Right after Glorious Revolution, in an attempt to let colonies prosper by relaxing enforcement and regulations. As long as raw materials cont. to flow and colonists cont to buy British goods, Parliament didnt supervise the colonies closely Navigation Laws were not enforced. SMUGGLING But English officials (left over from Charles II) were corrupt, incompetent & cared little about American affairs. They Blocked local officials rise to positions of power to keep control.
Colonies developed a large degree of autonomy which fueled revolutionary ideas as the monarchy later attempts to gain back control in the New World. During this century the colonies grew up beginning an American Culture as opposed to English culture. New York Dutch colony 1614 near present day Albany. (New Netherlands) and a fort at mouth of the Hudson River in 1626 (New Amsterdam) Today New York. New Amsterdam(NYC) was a company town run by the Dutch Company for investors (fur-trade) Indians retaliated to land grab w/ horrible massacres (Ann H. muredered)
Dutch settlers built a wall on Manhattan Island to hinder Indian attacks. (Wall Street) New Englanders(Puritans) were hostile to the Dutch settlements & the New England Confederation wanted to use military force but Massachusetts vetoed. New York & New Jersey 1664 Charles II went to war against the Dutch sending a naval force to capture New Netherlands. Weakened by Indian attacks, the Dutch governor surrendered peacefully w/ 400 civilians. Charles II brother James was Duke of York gifted it to his brother. When James became
King he proclaimed NY a royal colony. The Dutch settlers were allowed to remain in New York on generous terms & made up a large % of NY population. No other foreign group made such contributions: easter eggs, santa claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, & golf. Charles II gave New Jersey to friends who were Quaker investors. Delaware 1638-1655 Swedes tried planting a colony along the Delaware River called New Sweden. King Gustavus Adolphus in 30 yrs war carried the Protestant torch. Entered colonialism on a shoestring budget but invaded by the Dutch
and after the main fort fell absorbed by New Netherland. Leaving behind Swedish blood Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) were group of Penns Holy Experimentdissenters in England mid 1600s. (called this because they quaked when under deep religious emotion) in Pennsylvania Refused to support est Church of England in England w/ taxes. Built simple meetinghouses w/ out clergy and spoke up in meetings. Hated warfare & refused military service. Hundreds flogged & imprisoned. William Penn turned to Quaker Religion at age 16 against parents wishes. Became leader & looked to New World (some already went to RI, NC & NJ for religious freedom) Penn secured grant from King in exchanged for debt
owed to his father. King named it Pennsylvania but Penn unsuccessfully tried to change the name. PA best advertised & sent out pd agents Liberal land policy attracted many Pennsylvania & William Penn Founded in 1681 but thousands of squatters of Dutch, Swedish, English & Welch were already there making settlement easier. He bought land from the Indians Quakers treated Indians well, religious toleration, pacifists, womens rights Seemed promise land of Indian-white relations. Southern tribes even migrated to PA. Only when non-quaker European immigrants
(Scots & Irish) flooded in & undermined Quakers policies did Indian relations turn bad. Govt included representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax supported church, freedom to worship, no military defense, no restrictions on immigration, strong dislike of slavery Rich mix of ethnic groups Shrewd business people exporting grain Within 2 yrs 2500 people & 19 yrs 3rd most populated colony (VA & MA larger) Noble experiment in govt (new commonwealth based on civil and religious liberty and dedicated to freedom of conscience and worship)
Small quaker settlements flourished next door (NJ 1664) Proprietor Colony king gave him land so he could run colony how he wanted. (PA, MD & DE) Middle Colonies: NY, NJ, DE & PA Soil was fertile bread Colonies heavy exports of grain Broad Rivers w/ few waterfalls played vital role (Susquehanna, Delaware, & Hudson) tapping into Fur trade and shipping it out. Commerce and seaports (NY & Philadelphia) Forests for lumbering &
shipbuilding. Population more ethnic mixed, religious toleration & democratic control. Land was more easily acquired than in New England or the South.
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