Chapter 3 Notes - Miss Malik's Classroom Website

Chapter 3 Notes - Miss Malik's Classroom Website

Chapter 7 Notes Protists and Fungi 7-1 Notes: Protists Q: What is a protist? A: Protists are eukaryotes that live in moist environments. Protists are very diverse: Most are unicellular, but some are multicellular. Some are heterotrophs, some are autotrophs, some are both Some protists can move, some cannot. Q: How are protists grouped?

A: Three main categoies of protists are: 1)animal-like protists (also called protozoans) 2 Animal-like Protists (Protozoans) Q: Why are these protists animal-like A: Like animals, protozoans are heterotrophs that must obtain their own food, and most of them can move from place to place to get it. However, protozoans are different from animals because they are unicellular and animals are multicellular.

Scientists group protozoans based on how they move and live: 1) Sarcodines 2) Ciliates 3) Zooflagellates 3 1) Sarcodines- protozoans with pseudopods- a foot of cytoplasm used for locomotion and feeding; sarcodines also have contractile vacuoles- collects excess water and expels it from the cell.

example: ameba 2) Ciliates- protozoans with cilia- hairlike projections used in locomotion, feeding, and sensing their environment. example: paramecium 4 3) Zooflagellates- protozoans with flagella to move, and live in symbiosis- a relationship between two organisms living closely where at least one benefits. When both organisms benefit it is called mutualism;

example: Giardia 4) Sporozoans- protozoans that are parasites and feed on the cells and fluids of their host, sometimes more than one host; example: Plasmodium- causes malaria Fungus-Like Protists Q: How are fungus-like protists similar to fungus? A: Fungus-like protists are similar to fungus because they are heterotrophs, have cell walls, and use spores to reproduce.

However, they are different from real fungus because they are able to move at some point during their life. There are three different types of fungus-like protists: 1) Water Molds 6 1) Water Molds- live in water or moist places, grow as tiny threads of fuzz, can attack food crops such as the one that caused the potato famine in Ireland in the 1800s.

2) Downy Mildew- Same characteristics as water molds. 3) Slime Molds- Live in moist soils and on decaying plants and trees, they move like amebas with psuedopods, can creep together to form multicellular masses and release spores to produce new generations. 7 Plant-Like Protists (Algae) Q: What is the one characteristic that plants and all algae share? A: All plants and algae are autotrophs- they can make

their own food using sunlight. However algae are also varied in how they live and what they look like. Some algae are unicellular, some form colonies, and some are multicellular. Unicellular algae carry out all the functions necessary for life. Colonial algae are still unicellular algae that just live together. Therefore each cell still carries out all the 8 necessary life functions. Types of Plant-like Protists or Algae:

Unicellular 1) Euglenoids- green, unicellular algae, found in freshwater. They have one animal-like characteristic: they can be heterotrophs under certain conditions (like when sunlight is not available) 2) Dinoflagellates- Unicellular algae covered by thick plates that look like a suit of armor and exist in a variety of colors. Some glow in the dark and all have two flagella. 3) Diatoms- Have glasslike cell walls, live in fresh or salt water, and are a food source for heterotrophs. When they die, they collect and form an abrasive substance that make a good polishing cleaner.

Multicellular 9 3) Green Algae 7-2 Notes: Algal Blooms Q: What is a red tide? A: A red tide is a salt water algal bloom. Q: Why is it red? A: Because many algae that rapidly grow often contain red pigments and turn the water red. Q: What causes them? A: When there is an increase of nutrients in the water there is a rise in the algae that eat these

nutrients. Q: Are they dangerous? A: Yes, because algae produces toxins and when there is an increase in algae, there is an increase in the toxins they produce and those toxins get 10 Q: What is it called when an algal bloom happens in freshwater? A: It is called eutrophication. Q: Why does this happen? A: Same reason as salt water.increase in

nutrients. Q: Is it a bad thing? A: Yes. The rapid growth of algae in a pond or lake triggers a series of events with serious consequences: 1) The layer of algae prevents sunlight getting through to other water plants. 2) Those organisms die and sink to the bottom. 3) Bacteria break them down and reproduce rapidly. 4) Bacteria use up available oxygen and fish die. 12 LIFE SCIENCE PRIORITY

LIST: 1)Pg. 230 #1-4 - Due Today 2) 7-2 Worksheet- Due when you walk in tomorrow (but can go in the tray today) 3) Vocabulary 7-3 Notes: Fungi What are fungi? Fungi vary in size from unicellular yeast to multicellular mushrooms. Most fungi share three important characteristics: 1)They are eukaryotes

2)They use spores to reproduce 3)They are heterotrophs that absorb their food. The cells of fungi are arranged in hyphaethreadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi. The appearance of fungi depend on how the hyphae are arranged. Example: loose hyphae= 15 Q: What do fungi have in common with plants? A: They have cell walls Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. Fungi cells walls are made of chitin.

Q: What do fungi have in common with animals? A: They are heterotrophs- they must obtain their food from an outside source. How do Fungi obtain their food then? Step 1- Fungi grows hyphae into the food source Step 2- Digestive chemicals ooze from the hyphae into the food. Step 3- The digestive chemicals break down the food into substances that can be absorbed by the hyphae. 16 Some fungus, like the one that causes athletes foot are parasites that break down

chemicals of living organisms. Other fungus feed on the remains of dead organisms. Q: How do fungi reproduce? A: Fungi usually reproduce by producing lightweight spores that are surrounded by a protective covering. The spores are then carried by wind or water to grow new fungi. Spores are produced in fruiting bodies- the reproductive hyphae that grow out of a The Two types of reproduction in fungi: 1) Asexual- Type of reproduction used when

there is adequate moisture and food. Unicellular yeast undergo a reproduction process called budding (which is asexual) where no spores are produced. Instead, a small yeast forms from a large yeast cell and just breaks away to live on its own. 2) Sexual- Type of reproduction used when the conditions become unfavorable: hyphae of two different fungi grow togetherexchange genetic information- new spore producing structure forms- spores develop into a Q: Which form of reproduction will produce an offspring that is different from the parent?

Asexual or sexual? A: Sexual because there is an exchange of genetic information. Classification of Fungi- based on the shape of their spore-producing structures: 1) Threadlike Fungi- common molds 2) Sac Fungi- yeast, morels, truffels 3) Club Fungi- bracket fungi, puffballs Fungus and the Living World 1) Fungi help in Environmental recycling by being decomposers. Decomposers return important nutrients to the soil.

2) Fungi are a source of food like bread made from yeast, they help in making some cheeses, and edible mushrooms. 3) Fungi can cause disease in crops and in humans like athletes foot and ringworm. 4) Fungi can help fight disease because penicillum is made from mold which is a fungus. 5) Fungi help plants grow larger in a symbiotic mutualism relationship because the fungus helps the plant absorb food and nutrients and the plant give the fungus some extra stored food to absorb. This is called fungus-plant root

Lichen- A lichen is a fungus and an algae that live together in a mutualistic relationship. The fungus gets- food from the autotrophic algae The algae gets- water and minerals from the fungus Lichens are pioneer organisms because they are the first organisms to appear on the bare rocks after a disaster.

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