Chapter 3 Effects of IT on Strategy and Competition

Chapter 3 Effects of IT on Strategy and Competition

The Information Systems Strategy Triangle and Strategic Use of Information Resources Jason C. H. Chen, Ph.D. Professor of MIS School of Business Administration Gonzaga University Spokane, WA 99258 [email protected] John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices MIS Management Information Systems Which component is mostly important? 2 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 2 Information Ecology Data = simple observations ______

Information = data endowed with ___________ relevance and purpose. ___________ Knowledge = information that has been situationalized and contextualized to provide value. 3 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 3 MIS and Management Roles Management Roles Figurehead Interpersonal Leader roles MIS/IS Data Informatio

n Actionable Actionable Results Results Liaison Monitor Transformation Decisions InformationBased roles Decisionrelated roles John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices Description Very easy role No major decision making Or information processing Most significant; judging, Promoting, monitoring,

training Give-and-take relationships Seeks and receives Specific information Facilitator Transmits information To employees, managers,etc. Transmits information Spokesperson To vendors, customer, etc. Entrepreneur Problem Solver Resource Allocator negotiator Initiates improvements Supervises projects Allocates and approves Resources Represents the firm in Settling disputes

4 4 Planning is everything ... What are Two Major Outputs for an organization? develop Customers, market, competition Vision Mission guide Strategy create Tactic Products, Services John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 5

N Discussion Questions Q4- It has been said that there are no sustainable competitive advantages can be gained from IT other than the capability of the IT organization itself. Do you agree or disagree (Any sustainable competitive advantages?)? Defend your position. As the chapter discusses, sustainable advantage is hard to come by. Just about any advantage gained by a company seems to be copied by another at some point in the future. 6 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 6 Discussion Questions - Answer Those who agree (i.e., IT does not provide S.A.) with this statement might argue that even the capability of the IT organization is not a sustainable advantage because people come and go, they can be bought by another organization as a move to create the capability elsewhere, and their skills and knowledge atrophy over

time, when new capabilities arise. Witness IT organizations who excelled at managing mainframe applications, who are now struggling to keep up with web-based applications. Those who disagree (i.e., IT provides S.A.) with this statement might argue that the key to sustaining any advantage comes from the way all business resources are organized and used, and ultimately that comes down to how the managers and the people are able to perform. 7 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 7 What is the Competitive Advantage? A competitive advantage is a benefit derived from something a company does or has that its customers want and its competitors cannot (or choose not to) match. If a company can sustain its competitive advantage, the company will succeed in its industry how? Two types of people lead a company to succeed Those know how to innovate the enterprise Those know how to execute their strategy onto the enterprise using IS/IT.

8 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 8 Sustainable Competitive Advantages Any sustainable competitive advantages? How can an organization sustain its competitive advantage? Firms may create/improve their competitive advantages only if they: have ________ capacity to learn, employ ________ _________ approach revenue management With the service economy accounting for over 70 percent of GDP in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, service firms are becoming increasingly competitive with revenue management (RM) and pricing becoming central in their focus for sustaining long term profitability (and competitive 9 advantage).

learning to learn and learning to change (life-long learning environment) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 9 Three Essential Value Propositions for a Successful Company __________ Business Model __________ Core Competency outsourcing offshoring __________ Execution Set corporate goals and get executive sponsorship for the initiative 10 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 10

What is Business Model? A business model is a set of planned activities (sometimes referred to as business processes) designed to result in a profit in a marketplace. The business model is at the center of the business plan. An e-commerce business model aims to use and leverage the unique qualities of the Internet and the www. Source: E-Commerce: business, technology, society, Laudon and Traver, A/W John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 11 N 11 Why New Models? We need some new models for how we go about exploring IT for competitive advantage, for IT infrastructure how we create it and manage it for how we acquire, manage and deploy the

skills that are needed to run that infrastructure Profitability (making money) 12 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices N 12 Business Model vs. Revenue Model Business model is the architectural configuration of the components of transactions designed to exploit business opportunities. Revenue model refers to the specific ways in which a business model enables revenue generation. Revenue mechanism is a key component of the business model because it provides a sustainable financial source for the business effort of innovation (Afuah, 2004). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices N 13 Business vs. Revenue Model

Business Model Value creatio _________ n It describes the way in which a company enables transactions that create value for all participants, including partners, suppliers and customers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices Revenue Model appropriation Value ____________ It can be realized through a combination of - subscription fees, - advertising fees, - transactional income (e.g., fixed transactional fees, referral fees, fixed/variable

commissions, etc) 14 POP QUIZ __________ Strategy r Di ec n ti o r fo bu si n es IT

s im pa ct a nd po te n ti a l Needs and priorities ___________ Strategy John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

_______ Strategy 15 Information System Strategy Triangle Strategy Triangle Business (Firm) Strategy r Di ec n ti o r fo bu Su si n

es o rt p p IT s us b s Where is the business going and why? ss e n i im pa

ct a nd po te n ti a l Needs and priorities IS/IT Strategy Organizational Strategy What is required? Infrastructure and services John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

How it can be delivered? 1. Architecture/Infrastructure 2. MIS organization (Sourcing, Governance etc.) 3. Funding 4. Project Management N 16 Information System Strategy Triangle A business strategy is a well-articulated vision of where the business seeks to go and how it expects to get there. An organizational strategy is the organizations design, as well as the choices it makes to define, set up, coordinate, and control its work processes. IS strategy is the plan the organization uses in providing information systems and services. 17 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 17 Example

Give an example in which a company fails to perform well because it does not align its three strategies. Any? too much focus on IT used to be considered as a hardware company (Mainframe, Mini-computers, PC, DOS etc.) new division established in early 1990: GLOBAL BUSINESS SERVICIE DIVISION it now becomes a Service corp. TOTAL solution John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 18 IBM IS Strategy Triangle: Old Strategy Business (Firm) Strategy Revenue Creation (from Hardware) The triangle becomes unbalanced!

WHY Organizational Strategy IS/IT Strategy COMPLICATED and inflexible structure Too much focus on hardware N John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 19 IBM IS Strategy Triangle: New Strategy IBM Global Business Services is organized into six service lines: 1) Strategy & Transformation 2) SAP Applications 3) Oracle Applications 4) Business Analytics and Optimization

5) Application Innovation Services 6) Application Management Services Business (Firm) Strategy Revenue Creation Service Corp (_____________) The triangle is balanced! Organizational Strategy Re-structured/ Re-engineered Organization (e.g., Global Business Service Division) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices IS/IT Strategy IT is a supportive tool for entire organization worldwide

N 20 Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. IBM former CEO and president (1992-2002) Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Gerstner served for four years as chairman and chief executive officer of RJR Nabisco, Inc. This was preceded by an 11year career at American Express Company, where he was president of the parent company and chairman and CEO of its largest subsidiary, American Express Travel Related Services Company. Prior to that, Mr. Gerstner was a director of the management consulting firm of McKinsey & Co., Inc., which he joined in 1965. In January 2003 he assumed the position of chairman of The Carlyle Group, a global private equity firm located in Washington, DC. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 21 Another Example? Give another example (not in the high tech industry) in which a company fails to perform well because it does not align its three strategies. Any? too much focus other than IT inefficient organization structure Inefficient IT usage John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

22 FORD IS Strategy Triangle: Old Strategy Business (Firm) Strategy TOO MANY BRANDS/ FOCUSES Organizational Strategy IS/IT Strategy COMPLICATED and Inefficient structure Inefficient and ineffective IT usage N John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

23 FORD IS Strategy Triangle: New Strategy (ONE FORD) ONE FORD STRATEGY: One Team, One Plan, One Goal Business (Firm) Strategy Organizational Strategy SIMPLE and Efficient Structure A simple-sounding plan with big consequences IS/IT Strategy Efficient and Effective IT Usage and Support N

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 24 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 25 Alan Mulally: President and CEO, Ford Motor Company In September 2006 Prior to joining Ford in September 2006, Mulally served as executive vice president of The Boeing Company, and president and chief executive officer of Boeing Commercial Airplanes. In that role, he was responsible for all of the companys commercial airplane programs and related services. Mulally also was a member of the Boeing Executive Council and served as Boeings senior executive in the Pacific Northwest. Management style Mulally negotiated four new agreements with United Auto Workers, which has brought down labor costs from $76/hour to $55/hour. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 26

Videos One Ford Strategy-All-new Ranger Show in 2010 Sydney (1m 28s) 27 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 27 Co-Creating IT and Business Strategy Information is increasingly a core component of the product or service offered by the firm. business strategy they cannot be IT strategy is ________ created without each other. Some companys main product is information (financial services). Q: Is FedEx is a package delivering company? Y/N (and Why?) FedEx can not function without ____ IT even though they are primarily a package delivering company. Other companies such as Walmart, UPS, or Zipcar John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

28 The Information Systems Strategy Triangle Successful firms business strategy ______ drives both their organizational and IS strategies: They must, therefore, seek to balance business, organizational, and IS strategies Changes in any strategy requires changes in the others to maintain balance. IS Strategy is affected by the other strategies a firm uses. IS strategy can have (sometimes unintentional) consequences on business and organizational strategies John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 29 Wal-Mart What is the core/type for the WalMart? Grocery Manufacturing or ??

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 30 BRIEF OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS STRATEGY FRAMEWORKS 31 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 31 Striving for Competitive Advantage Firm level: Industry & Competitive ______ Analysis Competitive Forces Model Competitive Strategy DAvenis Hypercompetition Model (7-Ss) _______ Business level Value-Chain Analysis

32 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 32 PORTERS FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL NEW MARKET ENTRANTS Switching cost Access to distribution channels Economies of scale Selection of suppler Threat of backward integration SUPPLIERS SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Threats INDUSTRY COMPETITORS THE FIRM Cost-effectiveness Market access Differentiation of product or service Bargaining power Redefine products and services Improve price/performance Buyer selection Switching costs Differentiation CUSTOMERS

33 John WileyDr. & Sons, Dr. Chen, Information Theory and Practices Chen,Inc. The&Trends of the InformationSystems Systems Technology 33 N TM -33 Generic Strategies Framework Michael Porter describes how businesses can build a sustainable competitive advantage fundamental basis of above-average performance in the long run is sustainable competitive advantage. He identified three primary strategies for achieving competitive advantage: ______ Cost leadership - lowest-cost producer

Differentiation- product/service is with unique feature _____________ Focus - limited scope; occupy narrow market niche _______ where the products/services can stand out by virtue of their cost leadership or differentiation. 34 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices Figure 1.2: Porters Generic Strategy Framework 3 Strategies for achieving Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage Competitive Scope Lower Cost Position Industrywide (Broad Target) Overall Cost Leadership

Particular Segment only (Narrow Target) Uniqueness Perceived by Customer Differentiation Focus Competitive Mechanism Dr. Chen, John The Wiley Trends & Sons, of theInc. Information & Dr. Chen, Systems Information Technology

Systems Theory and Practices N 35 TM -35 Group Work/ Discussion Questions Using the five competitive forces model as described in this chapter to describe how (and what) IT might be used to provide a winning position for: A global airline Use UA as an example (Group work together) 36 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 36 PORTERS FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL NEW MARKET ENTRANTS

Internal Forces: 1.customer focus 2.communication 3.core competencies 4.complexity 5.Quality SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS & SERVICES Threats INDUSTRY COMPETITORS THE FIRM Cost-effectiveness Market access Differentiation of product or service SUPPLIERS Bargaining power

Other forces should be considered in the e-Age: 1. Digitalization 2. Globalization 3. Deregulation/ liberalization CUSTOMERS 37 John WileyDr. & Sons, Dr. Chen, Information Theory and Practices Chen,Inc. The&Trends of the InformationSystems Systems Technology 37 N

TM -37 Business Strategies and its Competitive Advantage Differentiation Cost Focus Differentiation Focus Industrial economy Competitive Mechanism Dr. Chen, John The Wiley Trends & Sons, of theInc. Information & Dr. Chen, Systems Information Technology

Systems Theory and Practices Growth Particular Segment only (Narrow Target) Cost Leadership Alliance Industry wide (Broad Target) Uniqueness Perceived by Customer Innovation

Competitive Scope Lower Cost Position Knowledge-based economy N 38 TM -38 Hypercompetition and the New 7-Ss framework (DAveni) Every advantage is eroded. _______________________ Sustaining an advantage uses too much time and resources that can be a deadly distraction. The goal should be___________, disruption not sustainability of advantage. _______________ Initiatives are achieved with a series of small steps. Hypercompetiton occurs when technologies or offerings are so new that standards and rules are influx, resulting in competitive advantages that cannot be sustained. It is characterized by intense and rapid

competitive moves, in which competitors must move quickly to build new advantages and erode the advantages of their rivals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 39 DAvenis Disruption and 7-Ss Vision for Disruption Old 7Ss: structure, strategy, system, style, skills, staff, and superordinate goals. Identifying and creating opportunities for temporary advantage through understanding Stakeholder satisfaction Strategic Soothsaying directed at identifying new ways to serve existing customers better or new customers that are not currently served by others Market Disruption Capability for Disruption

Sustaining momentum by developing flexible capacities for Speed Surprise That can be applied across actions to Build temporary advantage John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices Tactics for Disruption Seizing the initiative to gain advantage by Shifting the rules Signaling Simultaneous and sequential strategic thrusts With actions that shape, mold, or influence the direction or nature of the competitors response 40 N 40 Examples of Competitive Dynamics Models

A similar strategy of cannibalizing their own products was used by Apple and GilletteTM. Apple introduced the iPhone while iPod sales brisk , and the iPad while its Macintosh were _____ sales were ______. strong Apple continues to exhibit this strategy with subsequent releases of new models of all of its products What Ss fit into this scenario? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 41 An Example in Beijing (Residential Housing Industry) Say Good Bye to the air conditioning era ( ) Selling house based on the actual living size Recruiting __________ members of communist party

__________ What Ss fit into this scenario? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 42 Porters Model vs. Hypercompetition Model Industries Porters Model Hypercompetition Model stable Relatively ______ Dynamic __________ 1) Ever-increasing competition 2) Changing power between players

Competitive Advantage (Characteristics) Competitive Advantage (How to) Establish a strong, long-term position and defend it. Attain a fit with the environment as in traditional markets Short-lived, take advantage of any small window of opportunity that arises (thru speed and aggression) 1) change rules of competition 2) create disruptions

(during which temporary advantages can be exploited) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 43 Summary of Key Strategy Frameworks (Fig. 1.4) Strategic Approach Key Idea Applications to Information Systems Porters generic strategies framework Firms achieve competitive advantage through cost leadership, differentiation, or focus.

Understanding which strategy is chosen by a firm is critical to choosing IS to complement that strategy. DAvenis hypercompetition model Speed, agility and aggressive moves and countermoves by a firm Create competitive advantage. IS are critical to achieving the speed needed for moves and countermoves. IS are in a constant state of flux or development Brandenberg and Nalebuffs co-opetition model Companies cooperate

and compete at the same time. Being cooperative and competitive at the same time requires IS that can manage these two roles. 44 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 44 Building a Social Business Strategy A social business strategy is A plan of how the firm will use social IT, aligned with organization strategy and IS strategy A vision of how the business would operate if it seamlessly and thoroughly incorporated social and collaborative capabilities throughout the business model Social IT is the technologies used for collaboration, networking, and the general interaction between people over the Web. Social business is the enterprise use of social IT for business applications, activities and processes . Answers the same type of questions of what, how, and who, as any other business strategy

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 45 Social Business Strategies Most of the social business opportunities fall into one of three categories: ______________ Collaboration Using social IT to extend the reach of stakeholders, both employees and those outside the enterprise walls. Social networks enable individuals to find and connect with each other to share ideas, information, and expertise. ______________ Engagement Using social IT to involve stakeholders in the traditional business of the enterprise. Communities and blogs provide a platform for individuals to join in conversations, create new conversations, offer support to each other, and other activities that create a deeper feeling of connection to the company, brand, or enterprise 46 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

Social Business Strategies (Cont.) Innovation _____________ Using social IT to identify, describe, prioritize, and create new ideas for the enterprise Social IT offer the community members a super idea box where individuals suggest new ideas, comment on other ideas, and vote for their favorite idea, giving managers a new way to generate and decide on products and services John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 47 Mini Case 2-2: ZIPCAR This is an interesting, short case about how a new type of rental car company is able to operate in a completely new business model, as compared to other rental car companies, and embrace Web 2.0 technologies to gain further competitive advantage. 48 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

48 Questions 1. Analyze the business model of Zipcar using Information Systems Strategy Triangle. 2. Discuss the synergy between the business strategy of Zipcar and information technology. 3. Are there any network externalities in the workings of Zipcar? If so, do they add value? How? 4. As the CEO of Zipcar, what would you do to sustain a competitive advantage? 5. Is the ZIPCAR case related to Hypercompetition Model? What are they (in terms of 7S)? 49 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 49 1. Analyze the business model of Zipcar using Information Systems Strategy Triangle. 50 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices

50 Information System Strategy Triangle Business (Firm) Strategy Organizational Strategy IS/IT Strategy N John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 51 Information System Strategy Triangle for ZIP CAR 1. Innovation (w/ new business model) 2. New Market and Revenue Increase 1. Small staff with little human interaction 2. Online community (Zipsters ) 3. E-Business organization

Business (Firm) Strategy (Car reservations were for a specific pick up time and location around the city, often in neighborhoods) Organizational Strategy John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices IS/IT Strategy 1. Internet 2. Wireless and Social Networking technologies (e.g., RFID, GPS, and Zipsters) 52 N 2. Discuss the synergy between the business strategy of Zipcar and information technology.

Ans: There is tremendous synergy between Zipcars business and IT strategy. Zipcar is heavily dependent upon an automated process, and supports social networking of its clients, so that they can freely provide feedback on the company and its products and services. IT was not only the key enabler of this business strategy (e.g., business model) but also was a facilitator in creating a buzz and encouraging community development around the concept IT completely supports what Zipcar is trying to accomplish. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 53 3. Are there any network externalities in the workings of Zipcar? If so, do they add value? How?

Through their use of social networking they provide value to the customer by providing an open exchange of ideas, and feedback to Zipcar. Network Externalities: Definition - The phenomenon whereby a service becomes more valuable as more people use it, thereby encouraging ever-increasing numbers of adopters. Network effects While the word-of-mouth method is often more influential in the beginning, analysis may play a significant role later in the cycle. In other words, you may adopt a service initially because someone you know uses it; later, you may adopt a service because "everyone" uses. IT Role? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 54 54 4. As the CEO of Zipcar, what would you do to sustain a competitive advantage? Continue to innovate through the use of IT and by listening to customer feedback on the social network sites. Look for strategic partnerships

with suppliers or other potential providers of services that Zipcar could leverage to improve its service or add extra value. 55 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 55 Hypercompetition model Is the ZIPCAR case related to Hypercompetition Model? What are they (in terms of 7s)? 56 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 56 Q/A 57 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Dr. Chen, Information Systems Theory and Practices 57

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Impact of Oil and Physical Features on the Middle East

    Impact of Oil and Physical Features on the Middle East

    Standards: SS7G7a. Explain . how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East). SS7G7b. Describe . how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people...
  • Présentation PowerPoint

    Présentation PowerPoint

    8 mars 2005 « L'égalité professionnelle dans le pôle Conseil Publicité»
  • Monday, February 4, 2013

    Monday, February 4, 2013

    The finches were different species but resemble each other because of how they evolved in a similar environment. The finches descended from similar ancestors and have evolved adaptations in response to each other's influences. The finches descended from the same...
  • Update Lambeth CCG June 2013 Social care Social

    Update Lambeth CCG June 2013 Social care Social

    The SLIC sponsor board has agreed to submit a bid. Pioneers are expected to work in a truly whole-system way (across health, public health and social care, and alongside other local authority functions and voluntary organisations), to achieve and demonstrate...
  • Steven F. Ashby Center for Applied Scientific Computing Month ...

    Steven F. Ashby Center for Applied Scientific Computing Month ...

    CSE 480: Database Systems Lecture 8: EER to Relational Mapping and DBDesigner Reference: Read Chapter 9 of the textbook EER to Relation Mapping Mapping of superclass/subclass relationships Mapping of shared subclasses Mapping of union types (categories) Mapping of Superclass/Subclasses Let...
  • condor.cc.ku.edu

    condor.cc.ku.edu

    Introduction to the Semantic Web and Bio2RDF, the "semantic web atlas of postgenomic knowledge" Michael Grobe Biomedical Applications Group
  • Health - the combinationof - Norwich High School

    Health - the combinationof - Norwich High School

    Your health triangle -- Well-being - Energy - Effectiveness. The health continuum. Health/wellness constantly changes. Your health can be seen as a point along a sliding scale (continuum) spanning from high level of wellness to the loss of health/wellness at...
  • chansons

    chansons

    Chez Laurette. Bm7 Em7. A sa façon de nous app'ler ses gosses. D7M. On voyait bien qu'elle nous aimait beaucoup. G7M Em6