Chapter 26 Microbial Growth Control Physical Antimicrobial Control Clicker Question:
Clicker Question: Physical Antimicrobial Control Clicker Question: Clicker Question:
Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium Clicker Question:
Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium Clicker Question: Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium
Clicker Question: Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium
Clicker Question: Decimal Reduction Time vs Temperature Clicker Question:
Pasteurization Times and Temperatures: Pasteurs original: half hour at 63oC-66oC as a Batch. Originally designed to prevent spoilage of wine.
Later applied to milk to prevent Mycobacterium bovis transmission of TB. Milk current standard based on killing Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter sps, Salmonella Escherichia coli O157:H7, Coxiella burnetti.
HEAT EXCHANGER: 72oC for 15 sec. Clicker Question: and
HTST Pasteurization Continuous Counter Current Flow Clicker Question: Countercurrent Heat
Exchanger Small Heat Exchanger Small Heat
Exchange r Heat Exchanger Diagram
Ultrapasteurization Heat Exchanger : heats milk to 138oC for 3 sec (2 to 4 sec). Ultrapasteruized milk is supposed to last 6 months at room temperature without spoilage.
Milk is packaged in plasticized cardboard containers. Theres a Story Here. The Autoclave
and water ! Ultra Violet Lights Are ON The mesh work
at the back holds behind it a HEPA Filter so that sterile air moves
outward as a laminar flow. Clicker Question:
Radiation Kills Just Like Heat 1 Gray (Gy) = 100 rads 1 rad = 100 ergs/g
Decimal Reduction Doses of Ionizing Radiation
Check out the D10 for humans Clicker Question: It Works Beautifully with Food
Filtration Depth Filters
Membrane Filters Nucleopore Filters. Bacteria stuck on
2. Impermeability. 3. Enzyme that alters structure of antibiotic. 4. Makes modification of antibiotic target. 5. Develops a resistant, alternate pathway. 6. Efflux Pump.
The Classics ! Epidemiological Patterns of
Antibiotic Resistance Appearance of Drug Resistance
Resistance to Vancomycin over come by converting the carbonyl to a
methyl. Computer Aided Drug Design Other Antimicrobial Strategies
Natural Products searches for fit into prokaryotic essential enzymes from databases of plant or other organisms secondary products. This is how Platensimycin was discovered by a screen of 250,000 known bio-products.
Drug Combinations Augmentin is a combo drug containing amoxicillin and the -lactamase inhibitor Clavulanic acid. See next slide. Textbook Combo: Sulbactam and Ampicillin
Summary of Recommendations Contact T. Karygiannis NIST Computer Security Division [email protected] Les Owens Booz Allen Hamilton [email protected] Security is an ongoing process Understand Risks before wireless systems are deployed Understand technical and security implications Carefully plan deployment of these technologies...
QF or utility may petition FERC to take enforcement action against state commission for failure to properly implement PURPA. ... No. 20095) seeking input from stakeholders about methods for calculating utility capacity needs and establishing a test for LEOs.
2 Hocking et al BJA 2004 3 Carpenter et al. Anesthesiology 1998. 4 Higuchi et al. Anesthesiology 2004. Korhonen et al. Acta Anaesth Scand 2005 1 Ben-David et al. Anesth Analg 1997 1 Liu et al. Anesthesiology 1996 2 Mulroy...
Oxfam report "Wealth: Having it all and wanting . ... as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws. 5.b enhance the use...
a. Use synonyms (words with same meaning) b. Interchange active and passive voice. 3. Give credit to original author. a. Use . In-text Citation ( author-date style) 4. Compare what you wrote with the original text. a. Are main ideas...
Structured Naming Given Credit Where It Is Due The following slides are borrowed from Dr. Katerina Goseva-Popstojanova at West Virginia University Name Spaces Absolute path name: the first node in the path name is the root of the naming graph.