# Chapter 18: Sampling Distribution Models

t5 Uni Chapter 18 : Sampling Distribution Models AP Statistic s The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Proportions 0 Rather than showing real repeated samples, imagine what

would happen if we were to actually draw many samples. 0 Now imagine what would happen if we looked at the sample proportions for these samples. 0 The histogram wed get if we could see all the proportions from all possible samples is called the sampling distribution of the proportions. 0 What would the histogram of all the sample proportions look like? Modeling the Distribution of Sample Proportions

0 We would expect the histogram of the sample proportions to center at the true proportion, p, in the population. 0 As far as the shape of the histogram goes, we can simulate a bunch of random samples that we didnt really draw. 0 It turns out that the histogram is unimodal, symmetric, and centered at p. 0 More specifically, its an amazing and fortunate fact that a

Normal model is just the right one for the histogram of sample proportions. Modeling the Distribution of Sample Proportions (cont.) Notation Alert: 0 0 The parameter of the model for proportions is represented by the letter p. 0 We will use for the observed proportion in a sample. 0 Be careful: Capital P is used for general probability.

Modeling the Distribution of Sample Proportions (cont.) 0 Modeling how sample proportions vary from sample to sample is one of the most powerful ideas well see in this course. 0 A sampling distribution model for how a sample proportion varies from sample to sample allows us to quantify that variation and how likely it is that wed observe a sample proportion in any particular interval. 0 To use a Normal model, we need to specify its mean

and standard deviation. Well put , the mean of the Normal, at p. Modeling the Distribution of Sample Proportions (cont.) 0 When working with proportions, knowing the mean automatically gives us the standard deviation as well the standard deviation we will use is pq n 0 So, the distribution of the sample proportions is modeled with a probability model that is

N p, pq n Modeling the Distribution of Sample Proportions (cont.) 0 A picture of what we just discussed is as follows: The Central Limit Theorem for

Sample Proportions (cont.) 0 Because we have a Normal model, for example, we know that 95% of Normally distributed values are within two standard deviations of the mean. 0 So we should not be surprised if 95% of various polls gave results that were near the mean but varied above and below that by no more than two standard deviations. 0 This is what we mean by sampling error. Its not really an error at all, but just variability youd expect to see

from one sample to another. A better term would be sampling variability. How Good Is the Normal Model? 0 The Normal model gets better as a good model for the distribution of sample proportions as the sample size gets bigger. 0 Just how big of a sample do we need? This will soon be revealed Assumptions and Conditions

0 Most models are useful only when specific assumptions are true. 0 There are two assumptions in the case of the model for the distribution of sample proportions: 1. The Independence Assumption: The sampled values must be independent of each other.

2. The Sample Size Assumption: The sample size, n, must be large enough. Assumptions and Conditions (cont.) 0 Assumptions are hardoften impossibleto check. Thats why we assume them. 0 Still, we need to check whether the assumptions are reasonable by checking conditions that provide information about the assumptions.

0 The corresponding conditions to check before using the Normal to model the distribution of sample proportions are the Randomization Condition, the 10% Condition and the Success/Failure Condition. Assumptions and Conditions (cont.) 1. Randomization Condition: The sample should be a simple random sample of the population. 2.

10% Condition: the sample size, n, must be no larger than 10% of the population. 3. Success/Failure Condition: The sample size has to be big enough so that both np (number of successes) and nq (number of failures) are at least 10. So, we need a large enough sample that is not too large. A Sampling Distribution Model for a Proportion

0 A proportion is no longer just a computation from a set of data. 0 It is now a random variable quantity that has a probability distribution. 0 This distribution is called the sampling distribution model for proportions. 0 Even though we depend on sampling distribution models, we never actually get to see them. 0 We never actually take repeated samples from the same population

and make a histogram. We only imagine or simulate them. A Sampling Distribution Model for a Proportion (cont.) 0 Provided that the sampled values are independent and the sample size is large enough, the sampling distribution of is modeled by a Normal model with 0 Mean: ( p) p

0 Standard deviation: pq SD( p) n Example 0 You want to poll a random sample of 100 students in the SHS 0 building to see if they are in favor of a spring dance. Of course youll just get one number, your sample proportion,. However, if you imagined all the possible samples of 100 students you could draw and imagine the histogram of all the sample proportions

from these samples, what shape would it have? Example (cont.) 0 Where would the center of the histogram be? 0 If you think that about half the students are in favor of the spring dance, what would the standard deviation of the sample be? Example #2: Sampling Distribution Model for Proportions The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that 22% of 18year-old women in the US have a body mass index of 25 or more a value considered by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute to be associated with increased health risk.

As part of a routine health check at a college, the phys. ed. department asked 200 randomly selected female students to report their heights and weights from which their BMIs could be calculated. Only 31 of these students had BMIs greater than 25. Is this proportion of high-BMI students unusually small? Example #3: Sampling Distribution Model for Proportions Obesity exists in about 33.9% of US adults ages 20 and up. A 200-passeger plane has been built with 35 extra-long seatbelt seats to more comfortably accommodate obese adults. On a slow travel day of 90 random passengers, what is the probability that there will be enough ELS seats to accommodate obese passengers?

What About Quantitative Data? 0 Proportions summarize categorical variables. 0 The Normal sampling distribution model looks like it will be very useful. 0 Can we do something similar with quantitative data? 0 We can indeed. Even more remarkable, not only can we use all of the same concepts, but almost the same model. Simulating the Sampling

Distribution of a Mean 0 Like any statistic computed from a random sample, a sample mean also has a sampling distribution. 0 We can use simulation to get a sense as to what the sampling distribution of the sample mean might look like Means The Average of One Die 0 Lets start with a simulation of 10,000 tosses of a die.

A histogram of the results is: Means Averaging More Dice 0 Looking at the average of two dice after a simulation of 10,000 tosses: 0 The average of three dice after a simulation of 10,000 tosses looks like: Means Averaging Still More

Dice 0 The average of 5 dice after a simulation of 10,000 tosses looks like: 0 The average of 20 dice after a simulation of 10,000 tosses looks like: Means Averaging Still More Dice (cont.)

0 Recall the Law of Large Numbers? As the sample size (# of dice) gets larger, each sample average is more likely to be closer to the population mean. 0 Do you see how there is less variability and the data gets closer to the mean as we increase the sample size? And, it probably does not shock you that the sampling distribution of a mean

becomes Normal. The Fundamental Theorem of Statistics 0 The sampling distribution of any mean becomes more nearly Normal as the sample size grows. 0 All we need is for the observations to be independent and collected with randomization. 0 We dont even care about the shape of the population distribution!

0 The Fundamental Theorem of Statistics is called the Central Limit Theorem (CLT). The Fundamental Theorem of Statistics (cont.) 0 The CLT is surprising and a bit weird: 0 Not only does the histogram of the sample means get closer and closer to the Normal model as the sample size grows, but this is true regardless of the shape of the population distribution. 0 The CLT works better (and faster) the closer the

population model is to a Normal itself. It also works better for larger samples. The Fundamental Theorem of Statistics (cont.) The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) The mean of a random sample is a random variable whose sampling distribution can be approximated by a Normal model. The larger the sample, the better the approximation will be. Assumptions and Conditions The CLT requires essentially the same assumptions

we saw for modeling proportions: 0 Independence Assumption: The sampled values must be independent of each other. Sample Size Assumption: The sample size must be sufficiently large.

Assumptions and Conditions (cont.) 0 We cant check these directly, but we can think about whether the Independence Assumption is plausible. We can also check some related conditions: 0 Randomization Condition: The data values must be sampled randomly. 0

10% Condition: When the sample is drawn without replacement, the sample size, n, should be no more than 10% of the population. 0 Large Enough Sample Condition: The CLT doesnt tell us how large a sample we need. For now, you need to think about your sample size in the context of what you know about the population. But Which Normal? 0 The CLT says that the sampling distribution of any mean or proportion is approximately Normal. 0 But which Normal model?

0 For proportions, the sampling distribution is centered at the population proportion. 0 For means, its centered at the population mean. 0 But what about the standard deviations? But Which Normal? (cont.) 0 The Normal model for the sampling distribution of the mean has a standard deviation equal to ( )=

where is the population standard deviation. But Which Normal? (cont.) 0 The Normal model for the sampling distribution of the proportion has a standard deviation equal to pq pq SD p n

n Example for Means 0 The mean weight of adult men in the US is 190 lbs. with a standard deviation of 59 lb. The elevator in our building has a weight limit of 10 people or 2500 lb. What is the probability that the 10 men on the elevator will overload its weight limit? More Examples 1. Human gestation times have a mean of about 266 days, with a standard

deviation of about 16 days. If we record the gestation times of a sample of 100 women, do we know that a histogram of the times will be modeled by a Normal model? 2. Suppose we look at the average gestation times for a sample of 100 women. If we imagined all the possible random samples of 100 women we could take and looked at the histogram of all the sample means, what shape would it have? 3. Where would the center of that histogram be?

4. What would be the standard deviation of that histogram? What Can Go Wrong? 0 Beware of observations that are not independent. 0 The CLT depends crucially on the assumption of independence. 0 You cant check this with your datayou have to think about how the data were gathered. 0 Watch out for small samples from skewed populations.

0 The more skewed the distribution, the larger the sample size we need for the CLT to work. Recap 0 Sample proportions and means will vary from sample to samplethats sampling error (sampling variability). 0 Sampling variability may be unavoidable, but it is also predictable! Recap (cont.)

0 Weve learned to describe the behavior of sample proportions when our sample is random and large enough to expect at least 10 successes and failures. 0 Weve also learned to describe the behavior of sample means (thanks to the CLT!) when our sample is random (and larger if our data come from a population thats not roughly unimodal and symmetric). Assignments: pp. 432 438 0 Day 1: # 1 11 ODD, 21

0 Day 2: # 6, 8, 12, 15, 22, 25, 29, 31, 38, 47 0 Day 3: # 13, 16, 24, 26, 33, 37, 39, 41, 43

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