Chapter 18 Classification

Chapter 18 Classification

Classificatio n copyright cmassengale 1 Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms

that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified copyright cmassengale 2 What is Classification? Classification is the

arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms copyright cmassengale 3 Benefits of Classifying

Accurately & uniformly names organisms misnomers such asPrevents starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names

Seahorse ?? copyright cmassengale 4 Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names copyright cmassengale 5

Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists copyright cmassengale 6 Carolus Linnaeus 1707 1778 18th century taxonomist

Classified organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today copyright cmassengale

7 Carolus Linnaeus Called the Father of Taxonomy Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species)

copyright cmassengale 8 Binomial Nomenclature Genussmall group closely related organisms Speciesdescribes an

important characteristic of the organism G + S Scientific name Humans? Standardized Naming Binomial nomenclature used Genus species Latin or Greek

Italicized if typed Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when hand written Turdus migratorius American copyright cmassengale

10 Binomial Nomenclature Which TWO are more closely related? copyright cmassengale 11 Rules for Naming Organisms The International Code for Binomial

Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names

copyright cmassengale 12 Example In USA & England house sparrow In Spain - gorrion In Holland musch In Sweden hussparf Scientific Name Passer domesticus

Which of these are written correctly? 1.Viola tricolor (pansy with 3colored flower) 2.Quercus phellos (Willow Oak) 3.Nymphaea ordata (fragrant water lily) 4.Clostridium Botulinum (bacteria that causes a form of food poisoning) homo sapiens

5. 4 Rules for assigning scientific names 1.All scientific names must be Latin words or terms constructed according to the rules of Latin grammar. Two different organisms cannot be assigned the same scientific name.

2. Rules continued 3.For each member of the same genus, the second word (species name) must be different. Organisms in different genera will NOT have the same genus name, BUT

can have same species name. 4. Classification Groups Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest

to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species copyright cmassengale 17 Classification

System The smallest group/TAXA is the species. If they share many features but are clearly different species, they are classified as different species within the same genus. Example

House cat(Felis domesticus) & the mountain lion (Felis concolor) Lions placed in a separate genus, Panthera leo Groups of similar genera are put into the same family. Ex: All genera with cat-like characteristics are put in the family of Felidae.

Families of similar organisms are placed in the same order. Ex: Cats are in the same order as dogsCarnivora they are all meat eaters. Similar orders are grouped into the same class. All warm-blooded animals that have body hair and produce milk for their young are in the class

Mammalia. MAKE A MNEMONIC I THINK Use these letters, in this order. Or else youll fail. DKPCOFG S copyright cmassengale 23 Hierarchy-Taxonomic

Groups Domain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species copyright cmassengale

Most Specific 24 Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberr

y Soup! copyright cmassengale 25 copyright cmassengale 26 Domains Broadest, most inclusive taxon

Three domains Archaea and Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

copyright cmassengale 27 1. ARCHAEA Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA Probably the 1 cells to evolve Live in HARSH environments Found in: Sewage Treatment Plants (Methanogens) Thermal or Volcanic Vents

(Thermophiles) Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid Very salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake) - Halophiles st copyright cmassengale 28 ARCHAEAN

copyright cmassengale 29 2. BACTERIA Kingdom - EUBACTERIA Some may cause DISEASE Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones Important decomposers for

environment Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale 30 Live in the intestines of animals copyright cmassengale

31 3. Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms A.Protista (protozoans, algae) B.Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts ) C.Plantae (multicellular plants) D.Animalia (multicellular animals) copyright cmassengale

32 Protista Most are unicellular Some are multicellular Some are autotrophic,

while others are heterotrophic Aquatic copyright cmassengale 33 Fungi Multicellular,

except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin

copyright cmassengale 34 Plantae Multicellular Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis

Cell walls made of cellulose copyright cmassengale 35 Animalia Multicellular Ingestive

heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals copyright cmassengale

36 copyright cmassengale 37 Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different

function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins copyright cmassengale 38

Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. copyright cmassengale 39 Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos copyright cmassengale 40

Cladogram Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales copyright cmassengale 41 Primate Cladogram copyright cmassengale

42 Practice Problems Dichotomous Keying Used to identify organisms Characteristics given in pairs Read both characteristics and

either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism copyright cmassengale 44 Example of Dichotomous Key 1a Tentacles present Go to 2 1b Tentacles absent Go to 3 2a Eight Tentacles Octopus 2b More than 8 tentacles 3

3a Tentacles hang down go to 4 3b Tentacles uprightSea Anemone 4a Balloon-shaped body Jellyfish 4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 copyright cmassengale 45 copyright cmassengale

46 copyright cmassengale 47

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